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【凡例】リーダーズ・プラス


見出し語

1.1

  a   配列は原則としてアルファベット順としたが, 単につづりが異なる語・追込み見出し・同義の複合語は比較的近くに配列される場合は必ずしもこの原則によらず一か所にまとめて示したので注意されたい. また -o- -i- の付く連結形はほとんどこれらの連結母音を付けない形のところで並記するにとどめたので, そのつもりで検索されたい 《たとえば phosphoro- phosphor- のところに並記》.

  b   数字を含む見出し語の順序は, それを数詞で書いた場合の順序とする 《たとえば A1 A one, 4-H club four-H club, F1 layer F-one layer.

  c   St. および Mac, Mc の付く複合語の見出しは Saint, Mac とつづった場合の順序とする.

 

1.2

 つづり字が米英で異なるときは米式つづりを主とし, 英式つづりを従として示した. 米英のつづりの違いは縦線 ( | ) を用い, 米英の違いではないときの並記にはコンマ (,) を用いて区別した.

 例:

 hon·or | hon·our  《米では概して honor とつづり, 英では概して honour とつづる》

 shash·lik, -lick, shas·lik  《米英ともに三通りのつづりを用いる》

 ep·i·logue, 《米》 -log  《米英ともに epilogue のつづりが普通で, 米ではさらに epilog ともつづる》

 

派生語・複合語についてはいちいち英式つづりは示さず, また -ize -ise はほとんど -ize のほうだけを示した.

 

1.3

 同じつづりの語でも語源が異なるときは別見出しとし, 右肩に小文字で番号を付けて区別した.

 例:

 chop1 [tSÁp] v. (-pp-) vt., vi. 《おの・なたなどで》 ぶち切る;切り刻む; ...

 chop2 vi., vt. (-pp-) 〈風が〉急に変わる, 意見《など》を変える about;...

 chop3 n. [Upl.] あご (jaw), 口腔, , ほお; ...

 chop4 n. 《インド・中国貿易における》 官印, 出港[旅行]免状; ...

 

1.4

  a 分節の切れ目は中丸 () で示したが, 発音の違いによって分節が異なる語は原則として第一に示した発音によって切った. 語頭・語末の 1 音節をなす 1 字は切らないほうが望ましいので示さない.

 例:

 aphid [éifEd, Ḯf-] 《第一の発音によるので a·phid であるが語頭の 1 a を切らない》

 

  b  複合語・派生語については各要素間の切れ目と音節の切れ目が一致するときは, 各要素の切れ目にのみ中丸[ハイフン]を示し, 各要素の分節は了解されているものと見なして省略した.

 例:

 mémber·shìp

 létter-pérfect

 nátional·ìze

 de·nátional·ize

 

1.5

 省略しうる部分は (  ) 括弧で, 言い換えできる部分は [  ] 括弧で示した.

 例:

 báll-pòint (pén)  ball-point pen または ball-point

 aliméntary canál [tráct]  alimentary canal または alimentary tract

 

1.6

 スワングダッシュ () は本見出しと同一つづりの部分の省略のために用いた.

 

1.7

 発音を表記しない見出し語には,本来のつづり字にはないアクセント記号をつけて、発音の強勢アクセントを示した(⇒■発音).

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発音

 国際音声記号を用い [  ] 括弧に入れて示した. 音声記号の音価については,「発音記号表」 を参照.

 

2.1

 母音の上にアクセント符 [´] を付けて第 1 アクセントを示し,[`] を付けて第 2 アクセントを示した.

 例:

 add [Ḯ(É)d]

 above [Eb¯̀v]

 rep·re·sent [rèprizént]

 

2.2

 発音が同じでアクセントだけが異なる場合, 各音節を短いダッシュで表わし,アクセントの位置の違いを示した.

 例:

 im·port v. [impÓÉ(r)t] ...  n. [-́-] 《[-́-]=[ı́mpOÉ(r)t]》

 

2.3

 人・場合によって発音されない音は () を用いて示した.

 例:

 at·tempt [Etém(p)t] [Etémpt,Etémt]

 sta·tion [stéiS(E)n] [stéiSEn,stéiSn]

 

 ただし,[E] が省略された場合には, 次の音が [l],[m], [n] のいずれかであれば, 音節主音 (syllabic) になり, 音節数は不変である.

 

2.4

 強い形 (strong form) もあるが 弱い形 (weak form) を常用するものは, 次のように弱形を先に示した.

 例:

 at [Et, Ï̀t, Ḯt]

 

2.5

 米音と英音が異なる場合は次の形式で示した.

 例:

 aunt [Ḯ(É)nt; ÁÉnt] 《=[米 Ḯ(É)nt; ÁÉnt]》

 ad·dress [Edrés, *Ḯdres] 《=[米英共通 Edrés, 米には Ḯdresもある]》

 

2.6

  a  長音と短音の両方があるときは, 長音記号を (  ) に入れて示した.

 例:

 grass [ǵ(É)s; grÁÉs] [ ǵs, ǵÉs; ...]

 

  b  次のような場合は, 繰返しを避けてまとめて示した.

 例:

 dom·ic, -i·cal [dóumik(E)l)]  domic [dóumik], domical [dóumik(E)l]

 equiv·a·lence, -cy [ikwı́v(E)lEns(i)] equivalence [ikwı́v(E)lEns], equivalency [ikwı́v(E)lEnsi]

 

2.7

 共通の部分はハイフンを用いて省略した.

 例:

 amus·ive [EmjúÉziv, -siv] 《[-] は共通の部分 [EmjúÉ] を表わす》

 

 同一見出し語内における並記見出し語・変化形・異品詞・追込み見出しにおいては, 通例その異なる部分のみを表記し, 同じ部分は [-] で略記する.

 例:

 Ae·gos·pot·a·mi [ı̀ÉgEspÁtEmài], -mos [-mEs] n.

 ae·ci·um [ı́ÉsiEm,-Si-] n. (pl. -cia [-E])

 ar·tic·u·late [(r)tı́kjElEt] a. ... vt., vi. [-lèit] ...

 

2.8

 複合語のアクセントを示すために, その構成要素としての一つの単語全体の発音を長いダッシュで表わす.

 例:

 A-bomb [éid] [éibÀm]

 ABC weapons [èibı̀Ésı́Éd] 《=[èibı̀Ésı́É wèpEnz]》

 

2.9

  a  外来語の発音は近似の英語音で示した. ただし,フランス語とドイツ語に由来するものについては原音を示した場合もある. その場合, F または G を付して, それぞれフランス語またはドイツ語の原音であることを示した.

 例:

 Cour·bet [F kurbÓ]

 Welt [G vÓ́lt]

 Ab·e·lard [ḮbElÀÉ(r)d; F abelaÉr]  《=[英語音 ḮbElÀÉ(r)d; フランス語原音 abelaÉr]》

 Augs·burg [ÓÉgzbEÉ(r)g, áugzbuE(r)g; G áuksburk]  《=[英語音 ÓÉgzbEÉ(r)g, áugzbuE(r)g; ドイツ語原音 áuksburk]》

 

  b  フランス語の複数形などの発音が主見出しの発音と同一の場合は [―] で示した.

 例:

 va·let de cham·bre [F valÓ dE SÃÉbr]

 n. (pl. va·lets de cham·bre [])

 

2.10

 直前の見出し語と発音・つづりおよび分節が同じ場合には, 発音・アクセントおよび分節を省略した. なお,大文字と小文字の違いは, ここではつづりの違いとはみなさない.

 例:

 bear1 [béE(r), ́E(r)]  /  bear2

 grace [gréis] /  Grace

 Fitz·ger·ald [fitsdZér(E)ld]  /  FitzGerald

 

 直前の見出しと分節だけが異なる場合には 分節だけを示し発音表記を省略することがある.

 例:

 ten·der1 [téndE(r)]  /  tend·er2  /  ten·der3

 

2.11

 次にあげる種類の見出し語には, つづりの上にアクセントが示してあるだけで発音表記はないが, 構成要素それぞれの発音は独立見出しで与えられているから, その発音を合成し, 示されたアクセント型で発音するものとする.

  a  二語(以上の)見出し

 例:

 áction stàtion  action,station は独立に見出しとしてあり, 発音はそれぞれ [ḮkS(E)n],[stéiS(E)n] であるから,これを合成して示されたアクセント型を付与すれば [ḮkS(E)n stèiS(E)n] となる》

 ábsentee bállot  absentee は単独では [Ï̀bs(E)ntı́É] であるが, 全体としては [Ḯbs(E)ntı̀É bḮlEt] と発音することを示す》

 

 独立見出しとしては記載されていない語については, その部分だけ発音を示した.

 例:

 Brám·ah lóck [brÁÉmE-, *brḮm-]

 

  b  複合語

 例:

 bláck·bìrd

 fínger·prìnt

 out·dóors

 

 複合語の構成要素の一部の発音が独立見出しの発音と異なるときはその要素の発音を示した.

 例:

 bóok·man [-mEn, -mÏ̀n] [búkmEn,búkmÏ̀n]

 

 複合語の発音の一部を示すときは, その要素に第 1 アクセントがあれば見出し語の上にこれを示し, これ以外は示さない.

 例:

 os·cíl·lo·gràph [Ası́lE-]

 frac·to·cúmulus [frÏ̀ktou-]

 

  c  派生語および屈折形の中で, 語幹の発音・つづり・分節に影響を及ぼさず,それ自身一定した発音をもっている接辞の付いているものの発音も省略した. また, 所有格および複数の s の発音は省略した.

 例:

 accépt·ance

 áct·ing

 kínd·ness

 státes·man [-mEn]

 Sún·days

 

  d  音節の増加をもたらさない文字の付加によってでき上がった語は, 発音を示さず, 全体の分節とアクセントだけを示した.

 例:

 com·préssed

 màth·e·mát·ics

 

 派生または屈折によってサイレントの e が脱落したり,y i に変わったり,子音字が重なったりした場合には, 発音を省略してアクセントのみ示したが, 初出の場合にかぎって 語全体の分節を示した.

 例:

 báb·bler

 com·pút·er

 háp·pi·ness

 per·mít·ter

 be·gín·ning

 réd-crèst·ed póchard

 

  e  派生または屈折によって同じ子音字が重なった場合, 原則として発音は単一である.

 例:

 crúel·ly 《=[krúÉEli]》

 hít·ter [hı́tE(r)]

 be·gín·ner [bigı́nE(r)]

 

  f  連結形を含む語で, 連結形の発音が一定している場合.

 例:

 hỳdro·therapéutics

 mòno·mánia

 nèo·clássic

 

(1) 発音を省略した見出しで, 構成要素の切れ目 (と同時に分節点) を示す中丸 () は構成の順序とは必ずしも関係がない.

 例:

 dis·belíever  《構成の順序は (dis+believe)+er

 un·kínd·ness  《構成の順序は (un+kind)+ness

 

(2) 発音を表記しない見出し語に対する発音の variant を示すために [, ...] [; ...] などを用いる.

 例:

 dí·amìde [,daiḮmEd]  [dáiEmàid, daiḮmEd]

 àm·bu·la·tó·ri·ly [; ḮmbjulEt(E)rili]  [Ï̀mbjElEtÓÉrEli; ḮmbjulEt(E)rili]

 

2.12

 発音表記の省略できる語でも紛らわしいときには註として発音を添えたものがある.

 例:

 àr·che·týpical [-tı́p-]

 léad tìme [lı́Éd-], léad·wòrk [léd-]

 wéll-réad [-réd]

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品詞

3.1

 品詞表示の略語については凡例末尾の「略語表」を参照.

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語形変化

 不規則な変化形のつづり・発音は (  ) 括弧の中で次のように示した. ただし複合語・派生語については必ずしも示さない.

 

4.1

 名詞の複数形

 例:

 goose [gúÉs] n. (pl. geese [gı́És])

 deer [dı́E(r)] n. (pl. , s)

 pi·ano [piḮnou, ...] n. (pl. -án·os)

 mos·qui·to [...] n. (pl. (e)s)

 

4.2

  a 不規則動詞の 過去形;過去分詞; -ing

 例:

 run [́n] v. (ran [(É)n]; run; rún·ning)

 cut [́t] v. (; cút·ting)

 sing [sı́N] v. (sang [́N], 《まれ》 sung [́N]; sung)

 

  b  語幹の子音字を重ねる場合は次のように示した.

 例:

 flip [flı́p] vt., vi. (-pp--pp- flípped; flíp·ping

 pat1 [́t] v. (-tt--tt- pát·ted; pát·ting

 trav·el [trḮv(E)l] v. (-l- | -ll-) -l- | -ll- 《米》 tráv·eled;tráv·el·ing | 《英》 tráv·elled; tráv·el·ling

 pic·nic [pı́knik] vi. (-nick-) -nick- píc·nicked; píc·nick·ing

 

4.3

 形容詞・副詞の 比較級; 最上級

 単音節語には -er; -est を付け, 二音節以上の語には more; most を付けるのを通則とするので, 通則に従う変化は示さない. これに反するもの, または つづり字・発音の注意すべきものは次のように示した.

 例:

 good [gúd] a. (bet·ter [bétE(r)]; best [bést])

 big1 [bı́g] a. (bíg·ger;bíg·gest)

 long1 [lÓ(É)N, lÁN] a. (·er [-Ng-]; ·est [-Ng-])

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語義と語法

5.1

 多義語・重要語については, 通例 アラビア数字 1 2 3 を用いて語義の分類を示した. さらに上位区分として A B を用い, 下位区分として a b c を用いた ( 本文 WHICH).

 

5.2

 訳語の前に [  ] 括弧を用いて文法・語法上の指示・説明を添えた.

 例:

 [C] [s《大文字または小文字で始まることを示す》

 [the ] [a 《冠詞 the, a が付く》

 [Upl.《普通は複数形で用いる》, [〜s 《語幹に s が付く》

 [sg.] [pl.][sg./pl.〉]  《構文上の単数・複数》

 [pass.] [p.p.] [pred.]

 

5.3

 小型頭文字(small capitals)は,参照すべき見出し語を示す. 紙面の節約のため, 語義(の一部)・説明語()・相互参照など随所に用いたので十分活用されたい. ただし,用例で用いたものは見出し語の存在を示すインデクスに過ぎない.

 

5.4

  a  用法指示ラベルには   を用いた ( 凡例末尾 「略語表」). 《古》 《まれ》, 《スコ》 《豪》 《方》, 《詩》 《口》 《俗》 などの用法指示は絶対的なものではなく, いずれもおおよその傾向を示すにとどまり, またその傾向の程度もまちまちで 決して一様ではない. 《米》 《英》 の表記はそれぞれ * " の記号で示した. * " の指示は 「主として米」 「主として英」 などの意を含むことが少なくない.

 

  b  学術用語などの分野指示には   を用いた. 【医】【昆】【哲】などの指示は, 必ずしも専門用語でもあることを示すものではない. たとえば【植】 によって植物学の学術用語であることを示すこともあれば, 単に語義が植物であることを示すだけのこともある.

 

  c  制度・団体などの国籍を示すのに  を用いた. 【米】【英】 はそれぞれ 《米国の》 《英国の》 の意である. 【アイル】 《アイルランドの》 の意であり, 《アイル》 がことばとして Irish であることを示すものと異なる.

 

5.5

 訳語では   括弧を用いて, 動詞の主語・目的語や形容詞と名詞の連結などを示した.

 例:

 date .... vt.

  1a 〈手紙・文書〉に日付をいれる; 〈事件・美術品など〉の時日[年代]を定める; ....

  2 《口》 〈異性〉と会う約束をする up,…とデートする.

 easy a. ....

  2a 安楽な, 気楽な, 楽な (at ease); 〈気分・態度などの〉くつろいだ (frank); ...; 〈衣服などが〉きつくない, ゆるい....

  3 〈傾斜が〉なだらかな; 〈談話・文体などの〉すらすらした; 〈速度などが〉ゆるやかな....

  4a 〈規則・条件など〉きびしくない, ゆるやかな.

   b 【商】 〈商品が〉供給豊富な, 〈市場の取引が〉緩慢な....

 

5.6

 見出し語と連結する前置詞・副詞・接続詞を訳語のあとに in,at on that のように示した.

 例:

 acquaint ... vt. 〈人〉に知らせる, 熟知させる,告げる with a fact, that, how>; ....

 capable a. ...; に必要な〉実力資格のある for;... に〉耐えうる,を〉入れうる of: ....

 familiarity n. 1 よく知っていること, 精通,熟知 with.

 mine2 [...] vt. ...; 〈資源などを〉枯渇させる out.

 

5.7

 同意語 (synonym) は訳語のあとに (  ) 括弧で, 反意語 (antonym) (opp. ...) の形で, 説明語句は訳語の前または後ろに   を用いて示した.

 

5.8

 語義・訳語に用いた (  ) 括弧は (  ) 内を省略しうることを示し, [  ] 括弧は先行の語()と置き換えうることを示す.

 例:

 gránd-dúcal a. 大公();帝政ロシアの皇子[皇女]の《大公の, 大公妃の; 帝政ロシアの皇子の, 帝政ロシアの皇女の の意》

 

5.9

 随所に を用いて, (1) 発音・つづり字・語法・文法・慣用その他についての補足的な注意・説明・参考事項などを示し, (2) 類語を一か所に列記して各語間の関連を明確にした ( 本文 ARMY, BEAUFORT SCALE,METER1, TYPE, etc.).

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用例と成句

6.1

 限られた紙面になるべく多くの語義を収載する方針を採ったために, 全体に用例を相当割愛した. ( ) 括弧, [ ] 括弧の用法は, 見出し語 ( 1.5) および語義・訳語 ( 5.8) の場合に同じ.

  a  用例は語義のあとをコロン (:) で区切って示し, 用例と用例の切れ目は斜線 (/) で示した.

 

  b  用例中, 3 字以上の見出し語相当のつづりにはスワングダッシュ () を用いた. 見出し語の変化形,および注意すべき冠詞・前置詞・副詞・接続詞などをイタリック体で示し, その他はローマン体で示した. 小文字 c で始まる見出し語の項で C とあれば大文字で始まることを示し, 逆に大文字 S で始まる見出し中で s とあれば小文字で始まることを示す.

 

  c  用例は必ずしも全訳せず 紙面の節約のために必要箇所のみを訳出し, また意味が自明であるときはまったく訳を示さないこともある.

 

6.2

  a  成句はボールド体で, 成句中の見出し語部分の品詞に従って,その品詞の記述の最後に一括して示した. ただし, 品詞分類の煩わしい語については, 品詞の別を無視して幾つかの品詞の成句をまとめて示したものもある.

 

  b  成句の並べ方はアルファベット順を原則としたが, 類縁の成句などは一か所にまとめたものもあるので注意されたい (: 6.2 c).

 

  c  成句の意味分類はおおむねセミコロン (;) で区切るにとどめたが, これでは煩雑になる場合,および相互参照に便利になる場合には (1) (2) (3) と分類した. また, 時として成句の品詞を示したものもある.

 例:

 make1 v. ....

   or break [mar]… …を成功させるかだめにするかする, …の運命を左右する.

   out

   (1) [通例 can, could を伴って] 《なんとか》 理解する ....

   (2) 起草する, ...; 詳細に描く.

   (3) 信じさせる, 証明する, ...; 《口》 見せかける, ふりをする that:....

   (4) 《口》 (うまく)やっていく,成功する with;〈人と〉(うまく)やっていく with;やりくりする: ....

   (5) 〈金を〉こしらえる; まとめ上げる.

   (6) *《俗》 (女を)うまくモノにする,....

 

 draw v. ....

   on (vt.)

   (1) 引き上げる; 〈手袋・靴下などを〉はめる, 履く ....

   (2) 〈人を〉誘い込む, するように〉励ます to do....

   (3) 〈手形を〉あてに振り出す. (vi.)

   (4) (源を)…にたよる, …を利用する; …に要求する: ....

   (5) 近づく, 迫る (approach); 〈船が〉他船に近づく.

 

  d  成句に添える用例の示し方は一般の語義に添える用例の扱いと同じである ( 6.1).

 

6.3

  a  用例および成句中に用いた one, one's, oneself ,その位置に文の主語と同一の人または物を表わす名詞または代名詞がはいることを示す.

 例:

 mas·ter1 n. ....

  make oneself of… …に熟達する, …を自由に使いこなす《たとえば He made himself of .... となる》

 

  b  用例および成句中に用いた sb または sth , その位置に文の主語と異なる人または物を表わす名詞または代名詞がはいることを示す.

 例:

 bag1 n. ....

  give [leave] sb the to hold 人を窮境に見捨てる《たとえば Jack gave her the to hold. となる》

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語源

 各語の記述の最後に   に囲んで示す.

 

7.1

 記述は, 現在の語義・語形の理解に役立つことを主眼とし, 必要に応じてセミコロン (;) のあとに説明を加えた. 語義上特筆すべきことがない場合,言語名の表示にとどめる.

 

7.2

< derivation を示す. 語源欄最初の()語は直接のもとを示すが, 最後は最終語源とは限らない. 借入経路を省略した場合はコンマを入れて ...,<... で示す.

 例:

 turban MF,<Turk.<Pers.;cf. TULIP

 

7.3

 小型頭文字 (SMALL CAPITALS) ,関連語の語源欄・成句参照を意味する. 直前・直後の語の参照はそれぞれ [↑] [↓] で示す.

 例:

 antsy

 cf. have ANTs in one's pants

 

7.4

? は語源が不確実または不明の語に付し, 必要に応じて初出世紀・関連語などを示す. また,借入源を特定言語に確定できない場合, 地域名を (  ) 内に示す.

 例:

 smile

 [ME<?Scand. (Norw. smila, Dan. smile);SMIRK と同語源]

 banana

 [Sp. or Port.<(Guinea)

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諸記号の用法

8.1 諸種の括弧

  a  (  ) 括弧

(1) 括弧内が省略されうることを示す ( 1.5, 2.6, 5.8, 6.1).

(2) 見出し語の語形変化を示す ( 語形変化).

(3) 同意語・反意語・参照語()を示す ( 5.7).

(4) 人の生没年・歴史年代や, 漢字のふりがな・仮名の送り漢字などを示す.

 

  b  [  ] 括弧

(1) 発音を示す ( ■発音)

(2) ()の入れ換えを示す ( 1.5, 5.8, 6.1).

(3) 語法などの指示を示す ( 5.2)

(4) 略語中において言語名や外国語のつづりを示す.

(5) 括弧  全記述の末尾において語源を示す. 語義・句義の末尾において意味の由来を示す. 語源については 「■語源」参照.

 

  c    括弧

(1) 語義・訳文などの前後に置いて限定的・補足的説明を示す ( 5.7)

(2) 関連語, 特に関連形容詞を示す.

(3) 用法指示を示す ( 5.4)

 

  d   (ギュメ) の用法については 5.5, 5.6 を参照.

 

  e   】の用法については 5.4 を参照.

 

8.2

  a  ハイフンは次のように用いた.

 (1) 見出し語  -

  複合語

  dóuble-lóck vt.

  接頭辞・接尾辞・連結形

  ad-  -ics  /  Russo- /  -phobia

  一部省略

  be·a·tif·ic, -i·cal [bı̀(É)Etı́fik((E)l)] a. 至福を与える力のある; 幸福に輝いた,喜びに満ちた.

  -i·cal·ly adv.

 

 (2) 発音  -

  一部省略

  de·mur·ral [dimÉÉrEl, -́r-; -́r -] n. 異議申し立て.

 

  b  小型頭文字 (SMALL CAPITALS参照すべき見出し語を示す ( 5.3).

 

  c  (1) U, O,S はそれぞれ usually (通例), often (しばしば), sometimes (時に) を記号化したものである.

 [Upl.《通例複数で用いる》

 [OP《しばしば P で始まる》

 [Us,sg.《通例 -s 付きの形で構文上は単数扱い》

 なお, 発音表記に用いるときも同じ.

 

 (2) *, " はそれぞれ 《米》,《英》 の意.

 (3) + (プラス派生語などの語義記述の前において,「記述するまでもない派生的な意味に加えて」 の意.

 

  d  その他

 〜 (スワングダッシュ)   見出し語と同一のつづりを表わす ( 1.6, 6.1b).

 

 ⇒   参照すべき項目を示す.

 

 ★   注意事項・一括列記 ( 5.9)

 

 ☆   地名説明中, 都市名の前に付けて首都・州都・中心都市を示す.

 

   語義・用例・訳文中において, … の所にいろいろな語が該当することを示す. instead of…の代わりに」 のように英語・日本語の共通部分にはこれを繰り返さない.

 

 ゚    略語・記号の見出しの 2 語以上から成る full form の前に付けて, その語が見出しにあることを示す.

  例:

  BA 〔野〕 batting average.  batting average の見出しがある》.

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略語表: 分野指示

【医】        医学, 病理学

【遺】        遺伝学

【印】        印刷

【韻】        韻律学

【宇】        宇宙

【映】        映画

【泳】        水泳

【園】        園芸

【音】        音声学

【化】        化学

【海】        海語, 航海

【解】        解剖

【画】        絵画

【楽】        音楽

【カト】      カトリック

【気】        気象学

【機】        機械

【旧約】      旧約聖書

【キ教】      キリスト教

【ギ神】      ギリシア神話

【ギ正教】    ギリシア正教

【魚】        魚類

【空】        航空

【軍】        軍事

【経】        経済, 経済学

【劇】        演劇

【建】        建築, 建築学

【言】        言語学

【工】        工学

【光】        光学

【鉱】        鉱物(),採鉱, 鉱山

【古史】      古代史

【古生】      古生物

【昆】        昆虫

【財】        財政()

【史】        歴史, 歴史学

【歯】        歯科()

【紙】        製紙

【写】        写真

【社】        社会学

【狩】        狩猟

【宗】        宗教

【修】        修辞学

【商】        商業

【晶】        結晶

【城】        築城

【植】        植物, 植物学

【心】        心理学

【人】        人類学

【新約】      新約聖書

【数】        数学

【スポ】      スポーツ

【生】        生物, 生物学

【政】        政治, 政治学

【聖】        聖書

【生化】      生化学

【生保】      生命保険

【染】        染色, 染料

【測】        測量

【畜】        畜産

【地物】      地球物理

【彫】        彫刻

【鳥】        鳥類, 鳥類学

【哲】        哲学

【電】        電気

【電算】      電算機

【天】        天文学

【統】        統計学

【動】        動物, 動物学

【図書】      図書館, 図書館学

 

【農】        農業

【バスケ】    バスケットボール

【バド】      バドミントン

【美】        美術

【フェン】    フェンシング

【服】        服飾

【フット】    フットボール

【プロ】      プロテスタント

【保】        保険

【ボウル】    ボウリング

【ボク】      ボクシング

【法】        法学, 法律()

【砲】        砲術

【紡】        紡績

【簿】        簿記

【紋】        紋章, 紋章学

【野】        野球

【冶】        冶金

【薬】        薬学

【郵】        郵便, 郵趣

【窯】        窯業

【理】        理学, 物理学

【力】        力学

【林】        林業

【倫】        倫理学

【レス】      レスリング

【労】        労働

【ロ神】      ローマ神話

【論】        論理学

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略語表: 用法指示

《詩》        poetical

《古》       archaic

《廃》       obsolete

《口》       colloquial, informal

《文》       literary

《俗》       slang

《学俗》     school slang

《海俗》     sailors’ slang

《韻俗》     rhyming slang

《卑》       vulgar, taboo

《まれ》     rare

《幼児》     nursery

《方》       dialectal

《米》, *     Americanism

《英》, "     Briticism

《スコ》     Scottish

《アイル》   Irish

《ウェールズ》Welsh

《豪》       Australian

《ニュ》     New Zealand

《インド》   Anglo-Indian

《カナダ》   Canadian

《南ア》     South Africa

《カリブ》   Carib

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略語表: 文法用語など

a.            adjective

adv.          adverb

attrib.         attributive

comb. form     combining form

compd.        compound

conj.          conjunction

derog.         derogatory

dial.          dialect

dim.          diminutive

euph.         euphemism

fem.          feminine

fig.           figurative

freq.          frequentative

imit.          imitative

impv.         imperative

int.           interjection

inter.          interrogative

iron.          ironical

joc.           jocular

masc.         masculine

n.            noun

neg.          negative

obj.           objective

p.            past

pass.          passive

pl.            plural

poss.          possesive

p.p.           past participle

pred.          predicative

pref.          prefix

prep.          preposition

pres. p.        present participle

pron.          pronoun

rflx.          reflexive

sb            somebody

sg.           singular

sth           something

suf.           suffix

v. auxil.       auxiliary verb

vi.            intransitive verb

voc.          vocative

vt.            transitive verb

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言語名の略形

AF                    Anglo-French

(Afr.)         Africa

Afrik.         Afrikaans

Akkad.        Akkadian

Alb.          Albanian

Amh.         Amharic

Am.Ind.              American Indian

Am.Sp.       American Spanish

Arab.         Arabic

Aram.         Aramaic

Assyr.         Assyrian

(Austral.)      Australia

Bulg.         Bulgarian

Can.F         Canadian French

Cat.          Catalan

Celt.          Celtic

Chin.         Chinese

Copt.         Coptic

Corn.         Cornish

Dan.          Danish

Du.           Dutch

E            English

Egypt.        Egyptian

F             French

Finn.         Finnish

Flem.         Flemish

Frank.        Frankish

Fris.          Frisian

G            German

Gael.         Gaelic

Gk.           Greek

Gmc.         Germanic

Goth.         Gothic

Haw.          Hawaiian

Heb.          Hebrew

Hind.         Hindustani

Hung.         Hungarian

Icel.          Icelandic

IE            Indo-European

Ir.            Irish

It.            Italian

Jap.          Japanese

Jav.           Javanese

L             Latin

Latv.          Latvian

LG           Low German

Lith.          Lithuanian

M...          Middle / Medieval

MDu.         Middle Dutch

ME           Middle English

MHG         Middle High German

MLG         Middle Low German

Mod.Gk.      Modern Greek

Mod.Heb.      Modern Hebrew

NL           Neo-Latin

Norw.         Norwegian

O...           Old

ODu.         Old Dutch

OE           Old English

OF           Old French

OHG         Old High German

ON           Old Norse

OS           Old Saxon

Pers.          Persian

Pol.          Polish

Port.          Portuguese

Prov.         Provençal

Rom.         Romanic

Rum.         Rumanian

Russ.         Russian

Sc.           Scottish

Scand.        Scandinavian

Sem.          Semitic

Serb.         Serbian

Serbo-Croat    Serbo-Croatian

Skt.          Sanskrit

Slav.          Slavonic

Sp.           Spanish

Swed.         Swedish

Syr.          Syriac

Turk.         Turkish

W.Ind.        West Indies

Yid.                  Yiddish

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Shakespeare 作品の略形

All’s W        All’s Well That Ends Well

Antony         Antony and Cleopatra

As Y L          As You Like It

Caesar          Julius Caesar

Corio            Coriolanus

Cymb          Cymbeline

Errors          The Comedy of Errors

Hamlet          Hamlet

1 Hen IV        1 Henry IV

2 Hen IV        2 Henry IV

Hen V          Henry V

1 Hen VI        1 Henry VI

2 Hen VI        2 Henry VI

3 Hen VI        3 Henry VI

Hen VIII         Henry VIII

John          King John

Kinsmen        The Two Noble Kinsmen

Lear         King Lear

Love’s L L       Love’s Labour’s Lost

Lucrece          The Rape of Lucrece

Macbeth         Macbeth

Measure         Measure for Measure

Merch V         The Merchant of Venice

Merry W         The Merry Wives of Windsor

Mids N D        A Midsummer Night’s Dream

Much Ado       Much Ado about Nothing

Othello          Othello

Pericles           Pericles

Rich II       Richard II

Rich III      Richard III

Romeo          Romeo and Juliet

Shrew          The Taming of the Shrew

Sonnets          Sonnets

Tempest         The Tempest

Timon         Timon of Athens

Titus        Titus Andronicus

Troilus           Troilus and Cressida

Twel N          Twelfth Night

Two Gent        The Two Gentlemen of Verona

Venus           Venus and Adonis

Winter’s          The Winter’s Tale

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英訳聖書 (A.V.) 書名の略形

Acts          Acts of the Apostles

Amos           Amos

1 Chron.         The First Book of the Chronicles

2 Chron.         The Second Book of the Chronicles

Col.         The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Colossians

1 Cor.            The First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians

2 Cor.            The Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians

Dan           The Book of Daniel

Deut.            The Fifth Book of Moses, called Deuteronomy

Eccles.           Ecclesiastes,or the Preacher

Ephes.          The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Ephesians

Esth.        The Book of Esther

Exod.           The Second Book of Moses, called Exodus

Ezek.        The Book of the Prophet Ezekiel

Ezra         Ezra

Gal.         The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Galatians

Gen.         The First Book of Moses, called Genesis

Hab.        Habakkuk

Hag.        Haggai

Heb.           The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews

Hos.         Hosea

Isa.         The Book of the Prophet Isaiah

James        The General Epistle of James

Jer.         The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah

Job         The Book of Job

Joel         Joel

John        The Gospel according to St. John

1 John       The First Epistle General of John

2 John       The Second Epistle of John

3 John       The Third Epistle of John

Jonah       Jonah

Josh.        The Book of Joshua

Jude         The General Epistle of Jude

Judges       The Book of Judges

1 Kings       The First Book of the Kings

2 Kings       The Second Book of the Kings

Lam.        The Lamentations of Jeremiah

Lev.         The Third Book of Moses, called Leviticus

Luke        The Gospel according to St. Luke

Mal.         Malachi

Mark        The Gospel according to St. Mark

Matt.        The Gospel according to St. Matthew

Mic.         Micah

Nah.        Nahum

Neh.         The Book of Nehemiah

Num.        The Fourth Book of Moses, called Numbers

Obad.        Obadiah

1 Pet.        The First Epistle General of Peter

2 Pet.        The Second Epistle General of Peter

Philem.      The Epistle of Paul to Philemon

Philip.       The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Philippians

Prov.        The Proverbs

Ps.          The Book of Psalms

Rev.         The Revelation of St. John the Divine

Rom.        The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Romans

Ruth        The Book of Ruth

1 Sam.       The First Book of Samuel

2 Sam.       The Second Book of Samuel

Song of Sol.   The Song of Solomon

1 Thess.            The First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Thessalonians

2 Thess.            The Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Thessalonians

1 Tim.       The First Epistle of Paul the Apostle to Timothy

2 Tim.       The Second Epistle of Paul the Apostle to Timothy

Titus        The Epistle of Paul to Titus

Zech.        Zechariah

Zeph.        Zephaniah

 

外典 (Apocrypha)

Baruch       Baruch

Bel and Dragon The History of the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon

Ecclus.       The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus

1 Esd.        I. Esdras

2 Esd.        II. Esdras

Judith       Judith

1 Macc.      The First Book of the Maccabees

2 Macc.      The Second Book of the Maccabees

Pr. of Man.    The Prayer of Manasses

Rest of Esther  The Rest of the Chapters of the Book of Esther

Song of Three  Song of the Three Holy Children

            Children

Susanna      The History of Susanna

Tobit        Tobit

Wisd. of Sol.   The Wisdom of Solomon

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発音記号表

[ai]          ice, mine, sky

[au]          out, bound, cow

[A;O]         ox, cotton

[]          alms, father, ah

[(r)]        art, card, star

[Ï]          attic, hat

[Ï(É); ]      ask, branch

[b]           bed, rubber, cab

[d]           desk, rudder,good

[dZ]          gem, adjective,judge

[D]           this, other, bathe

[e]           end, bell

[ei]          aim, name, may

[eE(r),ÏE(r)air, care, heir,prayer, there

[E]           ability, silent,lemon, upon, banana

[E(r)]         butter, actor

[(r)]        earn, bird, stir

[EÉr,¯; ¯]     courage, hurry,nourish

[f]           fox, offer, if

[g]           gum, beggar, big

[h]           house, behind

[i]           ink, sit, city

[]           eat, seat, see

[iE(r)]        ear, beard, hear

[j]           yes

[k]           call, lucky, desk

[l]           leg, melon, call

[m]          man, summer, aim

[n]           note, dinner,moon

[N]           ink, sing

[ou;Eu]       open, most, show

[O(É), A]              dog, orange,soft

[]          all, fall, saw

[(r)]        order, cord, more

[Oi]          oil, coin, boy

[p]           pay, upper, cup

[r]           rain, sorry

[s]           cent, fussy, kiss

[S]           ship, station, fish

[t]           top, better, tent

[tS]          chair, pitcher,match

[T]           think, pithy, both

[u]           good

[]          ooze, food, too

[uE(r)]        poor, tour

[v]           vine, cover, love

[¯]           up, blood

[w]          way

[z]           zoo, busy, lose

[Z]           measure, rouge

 

[´]          第一アクセント

[`]          第二アクセント

 

★〈注記

(1) ( ) に入れた記号

 (a) 略しうる音

  :

  [stéiS(E)n] [stéiSEn, stéiSn]

  [(h)wen] [hwen,wen]

 

 (b) ([(E)] の場合) 次の子音が音節主音であることを示す

  :

 [kÁnt(E)nEnt] [kÁntpEnt].

 

(2) [Ï(É); ] などのセミコロン (;) の左は米音, 右は英音を示す

 :

 ask [Ḯ(É)sk; ÁÉsk] , 米音 [Ḯ(É)sk], 英音 [ÁÉsk] の意.

 

(3) [(É)] は一般に長母音と短母音の両方の発音があることを示すが, [O(É)] ,米音 [],英音 [O] の意.

 

(4) [(r)] [eE(r), ÏE(r)] [(r)] [E(r)] [iE(r)] [(r)] [uE(r)] [(r)] ,英音では切れ目なしに母音が続く場合にのみ発音される [r] を表わす. すなわち子音の前と語末であとに母音がすぐ続かないときは発音されない. 米音では先行する [E] に影響を与えてそれとともに [] と表わされる r 音色のついた母音 (r-colored vowel) になる. また米音では, [(r)] [AE±], [(r)] [OE±] と発音される. [eE(r)] [e] は他の位置の [e] よりも口の開きが大きく,精密表記では [Ó] で表わされる.

 

(5) [*], ["] はそれぞれ 米音, 英音としては [] の発音もあるの意 ( 凡例 2.5).

 

(6) 発音記号のない本見出し語の発音 については 凡例 2.10, 2.11 参照.

 

 

非英語音およびその他の記号

[y]    Bürger, Lunéville (唇をまるめて [i] を発音する)

[ø]    feu2, Neuchâtel (唇をまるめて [e] を発音する)

[{]   jeunesse,{uf (唇をまるめて [Ó] を発音する)

[Ã]    pensée, sans (鼻音化した [A])

[Ó̃]    Maintenon, vin rosé (鼻音化した [Ó])

[Õ]    bonsoir, garçon (鼻音化した [O])

[{̃]   chacun à son goût (鼻音化した [{])

[ç]    Brecht, nicht wahr (中舌面を硬口蓋に近づけて出す無声摩擦音)

[x]    Bach, loch (後舌面を硬口蓋に近づけて出す無声摩擦音)

[µ]    ennui, nuit blanche ([y] に対応する半母音)

[x­]    Bourgogne,Montaigne (口蓋化した [n])

[F]    phew (両唇をせばめて出す無声摩擦音; 日本語の の子音)

[m9]   hem [m9m] (無声化した [m])

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主要参考文献

  この文献リストは, 本辞典編集の趣旨に沿って, さらに広く情報を求める利用者の便をはかるために,編集の段階で参照しその恩恵を被った多くの参考図書のほかに, 現時点で利用可能と思われる主要な文献をできるだけ収録しようと試みたものである. ただしスペースの制約もあり和書はごく一部の分野にとどめた. 利用しやすいように, 実用的な見地から収録文献を大まかに分類し, 各分類ごとに書名のアルファベット順に配列した(ただし冒頭の冠詞は無視してある). 和書が加わる場合は,それぞれの末尾に一括して示した.

 広範囲にわたり拡大し続ける現代英語の語彙を文献の面で把握することは容易ではなく, 重要な書物の脱落,選択・分類の不適切な点などの不備が多く残っていることをおそれている. 寛大な態度でご教示くださるようにお願い申し上げたい. このリストの作成にあたって, 土肥一夫君に土台を築いてもらった. ここにその名を記して感謝の意を表する.


 

東 信行     



1. 主要参考文献:一般語

 

1.1 非縮約・大型版

 

A. H. Soukhanov. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin,  19923.

 

P. B. DeVinne. The American Heritage Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin,  1987.  (Reader's Digest Great Illustrated Dictionary の米国版)

 

W. D. Whitney. The Century Dictionary.  6 vols. 188991.  Rev. and enlarged ed.  10 vols. Century, 1911.  Rpt. 名著普及会1980.

 

I. K. Funk. Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary of the English Language.  Funk & Wagnalls,  1913.

 

L. Brown. The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 2 vols.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19934.

 

J. A. H. Murray, H. Bradley, W. A. Craigie & C. T. Onions. The Oxford English Dictionary. 18841928.  Corrected reissue with an introduction, supplement, and bibliography.  13 vols.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1933.

 

J. A. Simpson & E. S. C. Weiner. The Oxford English Dictionary. 20 vols.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19892.

 

S. B. Flexner. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. Random House,  19872.  (最新版は Random House Unabridged Dictionary. 19932 として出版; 『小学館ランダムハウス英和大辞典』 小学館, 19932)

 

R. Ilson. Reader's Digest Great Illustrated Dictionary. 2 vols.  Reader's Digest,  1984.

 

R. W. Burchfield. A Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary. Vol. I, 1972; Vol. II, 1976; Vol. III, 1982; Vol. IV, 1986.  Oxford Univ. Press.

 

H. C. Wyld. The Universal Dictionary of the English Language. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1932.  With an appendix by E. Partridge,  1952.  Rpt.  Toppan,  1976.

 

W. A. Neilson. Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language.  G. & C. Merriam,  19342.

 

Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language. Unabridged.  World Publishing Co.,  19552.  Rpt. Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary.  Dorset & Baber,  1983.

 

P. B. Gove. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language.  Unabridged.  G. & C. Merriam, 1961.

 

C. L. Barnhart &R. K. Barnhart. The World Book Dictionary. 2 vols.  World Book,  1993.

 

1.2 カレッジ版

 

C. L. Barnhart. The American College Dictionary.  Random House,  1947.  Rpt.  紀伊国屋書店1966.

 

The American Heritage College Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin,  19933.

 

The Chambers Dictionary. New ed.  Chambers, 1993.

 

M. Makins. Collins English Dictionary.  Harper Collins,  19913.

 

S. I. Landau. Funk & Wagnalls Canadian College Dictionary. Fitzhenry & Whitesides,  1989.

 

M. Upshall. The Hutchinson Encyclopedic Dictionary. Hutchinson,  1991.

 

B. O'Kill. Longman Dictionary of the English Language. Longman,  19912.

 

F. C. Mish. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,  199310.

 

A. Isaacs, J. Daintith & E. Martin. The New Hamlyn Encyclopedic World Dictionary.  Hamlyn,  19882.

 

J. M. Hawkins & R. E. Allen. The Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

J. Coulson et al. The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19752.

 

J. Stein. The Random House College Dictionary. Rev. ed.  Random House,  1975.

 

R. Costello. Random House Webster's College Dictionary. Random House,  1991.

 

S. Tulloch. The Reader's Digest Oxford Word Finder. Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

V. E. Neufeldt. Webster's New World Dictionary of American English. College ed.  Webster's New World,  19883.  Updated ed. Prentice Hall,  19943.

 

A. H. Soukhanov. Webster's II New Riverside University Dictionary. The Riverside Publishing Company,  1984.

 

1.3 縮約版・中小型版

 

B. Kirkpatrick. The Cassell Concise English Dictionary. New ed.  Cassell,  1992.

 

P. Kerr-Frost et al. The Cassell Encyclopedia Dictionary. Cassell,  1990.

 

Chambers Concise Dictionary. New ed.  Chambers,  1992.

 

P. Hanks. Collins Concise Dictionary Plus.  Collins, 1989.

 

R. E. Allen. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford Univ. Press,  19908.

 

P. Procter. Longman Concise English Dictionary. Longman, 1985.

 

O. Watson. Longman Modern English Dictionary.  Longman, 1976.

 

T. M. Paikeday. The New York Times Everyday Dictionary. Times Books,  1982.

 

E. Ehrlich et al. Oxford American Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1980.

 

J. Swannell. The Oxford Modern English Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

J. M. Hawkins. The Oxford Paperback Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19883.

 

J. M. Hawkins. The Oxford Reference Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1986.

 

G. N. Garmonsway with J. Simpson. The Penguin English Dictionary. Penguin Books,  19793.

 

D. Thompson. The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Oxford Univ. Press,  19928.

 

S. Steinmetz. Random House Webster's School and Office Dictionary. Random House, 1993.

 

Webster's New Ideal Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,  19892.

 

1.4 学校教育版

 

P. Davies. The American Heritage Student's Dictionary. Rev. ed.  Houghton Mifflin,  1986.

 

V. E. Neufeldt. Gage Canadian Dictionary.  Gage, 1983.

 

C. Morris. The Lincoln Writing Dictionary for Children. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,  1988.

 

W. D. Halsey. Macmillan Dictionary.  Rev. ed. Macmillan,  1987.

 

T. M. Paikeday. The Penguin Canadian Dictionary.  Penguin Books Canada,  1990.

 

E. L. Thorndike &C. L. Barnhart. Scott, Foresman Advanced Dictionary.  Rev. ed.  Scott, Foresman,  1993.  (亀井俊介監修  『スコットフォーズマン英和辞典』 角川書店, 1992 1983 年版を底本としたもの)

 

J. L. Goldman. Webster's New World Dictionary for Young Adults. Prentice Hall,  1992.

 

1.5 外国人学習者用

 

J. Sinclair. BBC English Dictionary. HarperCollins,  1992.

 

E. M. Kirkpatrick. Chambers Universal Learners' Dictionary. Chambers,  1980.

 

J. Sinclair. COBUILD English Learner's Dictionary. Collins,  1989.

 

J. Sinclair. Collins COBUILD English Language Dictionary. Collins,  1987.

 

S. Maingay. Longman Active Study Dictionary of English. Longman,  19912.

 

A. Gray & D. Summers. Longman Dictionary of American English:A Dictionary For Learners Of English.  Longman,  1983.

 

D. Summers. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman,  19872.

 

D. Summers. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. Longman,  1992.

 

J. Crowther. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary: Encyclopedic ed. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

A. P. Cowie. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19894.

 

A. S. Hornby et al. Oxford Student's Dictionary of American English. Oxford Univ. Press,  19862.

 

C. Ruse. Oxford Student's Dictionary of Current English. Oxford Univ. Press,  19882.

 

S. Wehmeier. Oxford Wordpower Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

L. A. Hill. The Penguin English Student's Dictionary. Penguin Books,  1991.

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2. 主要参考文献:発音

 

2.1 一般

 

J. W. Lewis. A Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of British and American English.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1972.

 

A. Lass & B. Lass. Dictionary of Pronunciation.  Quadrangle / The New York Times Books,  1976.

 

S. Noory. Dictionary of Pronunciation: Guide to English Spelling and Speech.  Associated Univ. Press,  19814.

 

M. Mangold. Duden: Ausspracheworterbuch. Dudenverlag,  19903.

 

J. B. Wynn. An English Pronunciation Dictionary. Domino Books,  1987.

 

D. Jones. Everyman's English Pronouncing Dictionary. Extensively rev. and ed. by A. C. Gimson.  Dent,  197714. With revisions and supplement by S. M. Ramsaran.  Dent,  1988. Cambridge Univ. Press,  1991.

 

J. C. Wells. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.  Longman, 1990.

 

NBC Handbook of Pronunciation. Rev. and updated by E. Ehrlich and R. Hand, Jr.  Harper & Row, 19844.

 

B. Silverstein. NTC's Dictionary of American English Pronunciation. National Textbook Co.,  1994.

 

J. S. Kenyon & T. A. Knott. A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English.  New printing, with addenda.  G. &C. Merriam,  1953.

 

21st Century Guide to Pronunciation. Dell Publishing,  1994.

 

2.2 特殊

 

G. E. Pointon. BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names. Oxford Univ. Press,  19832.

 

A. S. C. Ross. How to Pronounce It.  Hamish Hamilton,  1970.

 

T. U. Irvine. How to Pronounce the Names in Shakespeare. Hinds, Hayden & Eldredge,  1919.  Rpt. Omnigraphics, 1990.

 

G. K. Pullum & W. A. Ladusaw. Phonetic Symbol Guide.  Univ. of Chicago Press,  1986.

 

K. Forster. A Pronouncing Dictionary of English Place-Names. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1981.

 

J. K. Bollard. Pronouncing Dictionary of Proper Names:Pronunciations for more than 23,000 Proper Names, Selected for Currency, Frequency, or Difficulty of Pronunciation. Omnigraphics,  1993.

 

D. Edelstein. Pronunciation Dictionary of Artists' Names. Bulfinch Press,  19933.

 

大塚高信, 寿岳文章, 菊野六夫共編 『固有名詞英語発音辞典』  三省堂1969.

 

2.3 同韻語

 

S. D. Young. The American Rhyming Dictionary of Words and Phrases. William Morrow,  1991.

 

G. Lees. The Modern Rhyming Dictionary.  Cherry Lane Books,  1981.

 

B. Johnson. New Rhyming Dictionary and Poet's Handbook. New ed.  Harper Collins,  1992.

 

R. Fergusson. The Penguin Rhyming Dictionary.  Penguin Books,  1985.

 

J. M. Stein. The Random House Rhyming Dictionary. Random House,  1960.

 

S. Kahn. The Songwriter's Rhyming Dictionary. Souvenir,  1983.

 

J. Walker. Walker's Rhyming Dictionary of the English Language. Rev. and enlarged ed., supplemented by M. Freeman.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1983.

 

Webster's Compact Rhyming Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,  1987.

 

F. Stillman. Whitfield's Rhyming Dictionary.  Crowell, 1981.

 

W. Espy. Words to Rhyme With: A Rhyming Dictionary.  Facts on File,  1986.

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3. 主要参考文献:語源

 

3.1 本格的なもの (cf. 13.3, 14.2)

 

F. Holthausen. Altenglisches etymologisches Worterbuch. Carl Winter,  19743.

 

C. Watkins. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots. Rev. ed.  Houghton Mifflin,  19852.

 

R. K. Barnhart. The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology. H. W. Wilson,  1988.

 

A. Bammesberger. Beitrage zu einem etymologischen Worterbuch des Altenglichen. Carl Winter,  1979.

 

E. Klein. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language.  2 vols.  Elsevier Publishing Company,  196667.

 

T. F. Hoad. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford Univ. Press,  1986.

 

E. Weekley. An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. 2 vols.  John Murray,  1921.  Rpt.  Dover,  1967.

 

W. W. Skeat. An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. New ed.  Rev. and enlarged.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19104.

 

J. Pokorny. Indogermanisches etymologisches Worterbuch. 2 vols.  Francke,  19591969.

 

E. Partridge. Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  19664.  Rpt.  Routledge,  1990.

 

J. T. Shipley. The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots.  The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press,  1984.

 

C. T. Onions. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford Univ. Press,  1966.

 

F. C. Mish. Webster's Word Histories. Merriam-Webster,  1989.

 

中島文雄, 寺澤芳雄共編 『英語語源小辞典』  研究社1962.

 

梅田修 『英語の語源事典』  大修館書店,  1990.

 

下宮忠雄ほか編 『スタンダード英語語源辞典』  大修館書店,  1989.

 

3.2 通俗的・読物ふうのもの

 

J. K. Skipper, Jr. Baseball Nicknames: A Dictionary of Origins and Meanings.  McFarland,  1992.

 

R. Boycott. Batty, Bloomers and Boycott: A Little Etymology of Eponymous Words.  Hutchinson,  1982.

 

J. Ayto. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Word Origins. Bloomsbury,  1990.

 

M. Marshall. Bozzimacoo: Origins and Meanings of Oaths and Swearwords.  M & J Hobbs,  1975.

 

J. Ciardi. The Complete Browser's Dictionary.  Harper &Row, 1988.

 

H. Rawson. Devious Derivations.  Crown, 1994.

 

A. Room. Dictionary of Changes in Meaning. Routledge,  1986.  Rpt. National Textbook Co., 1991.

 

C. L. Beeching. A Dictionary of Eponyms.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19902.  (横山徳爾訳 『人名をルーツにした英語』 朝日新聞社, 1981 は初版 (1979) の日本語訳)

 

M. Manser. A Dictionary of Eponyms.  Sphere, 1988.

 

R. Hendrickson. The Dictionary of Eponyms.  Stein &Day,  1985.  (旧版は Human Words. Chilton,  1972)

 

L. Flavell & R. Flavell. Dictionary of Idioms and Their Origins. Kyle Cathie,  1992.

 

A. Room. A Dictionary of Pseudonyms and Their Origins with Stories of Name Changes.  Rev. ed.  St. James Press,  19902.

 

N. Viney. Dictionary of Toponyms.  The Library Association,  1986.

 

A. Room. Dictionary of Trade Name Origins.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1982.

 

A. Room. Dictionary of Word Origins.  National Textbook Co., 1991.  (Dictionary of True Etymologies. Routledge,  1986 Rpt.)

 

M. Manser. Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. Sphere Books,  1990.

 

J. A. Ruffner. Eponyms Dictionary Index.  Gale, 1977.  1st Supplement ed. by J. Mossman,  1984.

 

N. Ewart. Everyday Phrases, Their Origins and Meanings.  Blandford Press,  1983.  Rpt. Cassell,  1991.

 

C. Panati. Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things. Harper & Row,  1987.

 

R. Hendrickson. The Facts on File Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins. Facts on File,  1987.  (Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins. Macmillan,  1987 としても出版)

 

L. Urdang et al. A Fine Kettle of Fish and Other Figurative Phrases. Visible Ink Press,  1991.

 

A. S. Palmer. Folk Etymology.  Henry Holt,  1883.  Rpt.  Greenwood,  1969.

 

C. E. Funk. "A Hog on Ice" and Other Curious Expressions.  Harper & Row,  1948.  Rpt.  Harper Colophon Books,  1985.

 

C. Ammer. It's Raining Cats and Dogs and Other Beastly Expressions.  Paragon House,  1989.

 

G. Donaldson & M. Ross. More "Why do we say that?"  David & Charles,  1989.

 

W. Morris & M. Morris. Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. Harper & Row,  19882.

 

B. Hargrave. Origins and Meanings of Popular Phrases Including Those Which Came into Use During the Great War.  Gale, 1968.

 

A. H. Holt. Phrase and Word Origins.  Rev. and enlarged ed.  Dover,  1961.

 

L. Urdang et al. Picturesque Expressions: A Thematic Dictionary.  Gale,  19852.

 

L. Heller et al. The Private Lives of English Words. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1984.  Rpt.  Wynwood Press, 1991.

 

P. Davies. Roots: Family Histories of Familiar Words.  McGraw-Hill,  1981.

 

R. Claiborne. The Roots of English.  Times Books,  1989.

 

B. Beavis et al. Salty Dog Talk: The Nautical Origins of Everyday Expressions.  Granada,  1983.

 

S. K. Sperling. Tenderfeet and Ladyfingers: A Visceral Approach to the Words and Their Origins.  Viking,  1981.

 

E. Radford & A. Smith. To Coin a Phrase.  New ed. Macmillan,  1989.

 

A. Douglas. Webster's New World Dictionary of Eponyms:Common Words from Proper Names.  Webster's New World,  1990.

 

D. Owen. What's in a Name: A Look at the Origins of Plant and Animal Names.  BBC Publishing,  1985.

 

L. Urdang. The Whole Ball of Wax and Other Colloquial Phrases. The Putnam Publishing Group,  1988.

 

N. Rees. Why Do We Say ?  Blandford Press,  1987. Rpt.  The Cassell Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. Cassell,  1992.

 

G. Donaldson & S. Settenfield. Why Do We Say That?  David &Charles,  1986.

 

J. McDonald. Wordly Wise: A Book about the Origins of English Words and Phrases.  Constable,  1984.

 

A. H. Soukhanov. Word Mysteries and Histories: From Quiche to Humble Pie.  Houghton Mifflin,  1987.

 

W. Funk. Word Origins.  Grosset and Dunlap,  1950.

 

W. Funk. Word Origins and Their Romantic Stories. Funk & Wagnalls,  1950.  Rpt.  Bell Publishing,  1978.

 

G. Campbell. Words: A Potpourri of Fascinating Origins.  Capra Press,  1992.

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4. 主要参考文献:イディオム

 

4.1 一般・直喩

 

E. Sommer & M. Sommer. As One Mad with Wine and Other Similes. Visible Ink Press,  1991.

 

V. H. Collins. A Book of English Idioms.  Longman, 19583.  Rpt.  Greenwood,  1985.

 

E. M. Kirkpatrick & C. M. Schwarz. Chambers Idioms. Chambers,  1982.

 

R. A. Spears. Common American Phrases in Everyday Contexts. National Textbook Co.,  1992.

 

B. A. Phythian. A Concise Dictionary of English Idioms. Rev. ed. by W. Freeman.  Hodder & Stoughton,  19935. (R. C. ゴリス, 村上紀子訳編 『フリーマン英語基本熟語辞典』 秀文インターナショナル, 1984 は第 3 版の翻訳)

 

A. Makkai. A Dictionary of American Idioms.  Barron's Educational Series,  19872.

 

F. T. Wood. Dictionary of English Colloquial Idioms. Rev. by R. J. Hill.  Macmillan,  1979.

 

M. J. Wallace. Dictionary of English Idioms.  Collins, 1981.

 

M. H. Manser. A Dictionary of Everyday Idioms. Macmillan,  1983.  (A Dictionary of Contemporary Idioms. Pan Books, 1983 としても出版)

 

W. S. Fowler. Dictionary of Idioms.  Nelson, 19822.

 

F. J. Wilstach. A Dictionary of Similes.  New ed. Little, Brown,  1930.  Rpt. Georg Olms,  1973.

 

R. A. Palmatier &H. L. Ray. Dictionary of Sports Idioms. National Textbook Co.,  1993.

 

J. Seidl & W. McMordie. English Idioms.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19885.  (堀内克明訳注 『オックスフォード現代イディオム活用辞典』 オックスフォード大学出版局, 1985 19784 の日本語版)

 

A. J. Worrall. English Idioms for Foreign Students. Rev. by D. G. Sawer.  Longman,  1975.

 

F. T. Wood. English Prepositional Idioms. Macmillan,  1967.  (A. C. ゴリス, 宮内秀雄訳編 『ウッド英語前置詞活用辞典』 秀文インターナショナル, 1979)

 

R. A. Spears. Essential American Idioms.  National Textbook Co.,  1990.

 

E. Sommer & M. Sommer. Falser than a Weeping Crocodile and Other Similes. Visible Ink Press,  1991.

 

H. C. Whitford &R. J. Dixson. Handbook of American Idioms and Idiomatic Usage. New ed.  Regents,  1973.  (藤井基精訳編 『リージェンツ米語イディオム活用ハンドブック』 日本英語教育協会, 1989)

 

S. Wiener. A Handy Book of Commonly-Used American Idioms. Simon & Schuster,  1958.

 

L. Wright. Happy as a Clam: And 9,999 Other Similes.  Prentice Hall, 1994.

 

L. Urdang. Idioms and Phrases Index.  Gale, 1983.

 

S. Ichikawa et al. The Kenkyusha Dictionary of Current English Idioms. Kenkyusha,  1964.

 

I. R. McCaig & M. H. Manser. A Learner's Dictionary of English Idioms. Oxford Univ. Press,  1986.

 

T. H. Long. Longman Dictionary of English Idioms. Longman,  1979.  (東信行,諏訪部仁訳編  『研究社-ロングマンイディオム英和辞典』 研究社,  1989)

 

R. A. Spears. NTC's American Idioms Dictionary.  National Textbook Co.,  1987.

 

R. A. Spears & B. Kirkpatrick. NTC's English Idioms Dictionary. National Textbook Co.,  1993.

 

A. P. Cowie, R. Mackin & I. R. McCaig. Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms. Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.  (Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English. Vol. 2. 1983 の新書名)

 

D. M. Gulland & D. Hinds-Howell. The Penguin Dictionary of English Idioms. Penguin Books,  1986.

 

W. J. Ball. A Practical Guide to Colloquial Idiom. Longman,  1958.  (松浪有,小野茂, 須田忠彬訳編  『ロングマン口語英語活用教本』 秀文インターナショナル, 1979)

 

V. H. Collins. A Second Book of English Idioms.  Longman, 1958.

 

P. D. Jeans. Ship to Shore: A Dictionary of Everyday Words and Phrases Derived from the Sea.  ABC-CLIO, 1993.

 

E. Sommer & M. Sommer. Similes Dictionary.  Gale, 1988.

 

P. R. Wilkinson. Thesaurus of Traditional English Metaphors. Routledge,  1993.

 

V. H. Collins. A Third Book of English Idioms.  Longman, 1960.

 

J. B. Heaton & T. W. Noble. Using Idioms: A Learner's Guide. Prentice Hall,  1987.

 

J. O. E. Clark. Word Wise: A Dictionary of English Idioms.  Harrap,  1988.

 

多田幸蔵 『英語イディオム事典 <身体句編>』  大修館書店, 1981.

 

多田幸蔵 『英語イディオム事典 <日常句, 生きもの句編>』  大修館書店, 1984.

 

多田幸蔵 『英語副詞句活用辞典』  大修館書店1977.

 

乾亮一, 小野茂共編 『研究社英語慣用句小辞典』  研究社1971.

 

大塚高信ほか編 『新クラウン英語熟語辞典』  三省堂,  19863.

 

大塚高信編, 小林清一修訂 『新クラウン基本英熟語辞典 修訂版』  三省堂, 1987.

 

4.2 句動詞

 

J. Sinclair. Collins COBUILD Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Collins,  1989.

 

T. McArthur & B. Atkins. Dictionary of English Phrasal Verbs and Their Idioms.  Collins,  1974.

 

F. T. Wood. English Verbal Idioms.  The Macmillan Press,  1964.

 

T. L. Crowell, Jr. A Glossary of Phrases with Prepositions. Prentice-Hall,  1960.  (樋口秀雄訳 『コンパクト英語前置詞句辞典』 北星堂, 1990)

 

R. Courtney. Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Longman,  1983.  (東信行,諏訪部仁訳編  『研究社-ロングマン句動詞英和辞典』 研究社, 1994)

 

R. A. Spears. NTC's Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs and Other Idiomatic Verbal Phrases.  National Textbook Co.,  1993.

 

A. P. Cowie & R. Mackin. Oxford Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Oxford Univ. Press,  19932.  (Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English.  Vol. 1. 1975 の改訂版)

 

J. B. Heaton. Prepositions and Adverbial Particles. Longman,  1965.  (松浪有訳編  『ロングマン英語前置詞副詞活用辞典』 秀文インターナショナル1981)

 

N. D. Turton & M. H. Manser. The Student's Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Macmillan,  1985.

 

E. M. Kirkpatrick & G. Davidson. Times-Chambers Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs. Chambers, 1984.

 

G. A. Meyer. The Two-Word Verb: A Dictionary of the Verb-Preposition Phrases in American English.  Mouton,  1975.

 

多田幸蔵 『英語動詞句活用辞典』  大修館書店1982.

 

4.3 クリシェイ

 

E. Partridge. A Dictionary of Cliches.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  19785.

 

J. Rogers. The Dictionary of Cliches.  Facts on File,  1985.  (追村純男訳  『よく使われる英語表現ルーツ辞典』  講談社1989)

 

P. Rosenthal & G. Dardess. Every Cliche in the Book. William Morrow,  1987.

 

C. Ammer. Have a Nice DayNo Probleḿ: A Dictionary of Cliches.  Dutton,  1992.  (The Methuen Dictionary of Cliches.  Methuen,  1992 としても出版)

 

N. Rees. The Joy of Cliches. Macdonald,  1984.

 

4.4 婉曲語・故事来歴・その他 (cf. 3.2)

 

B. Kirkpatrick. Brewer's Concise Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Cassell,  1992.

 

I. H. Evans. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Cassell,  198914.  (加島祥造他訳 『ブルーワー英語故事成語大辞典』 大修館書店, 1994)

 

D. Pickering et al. Brewer's Dictionary of 20th-Century Phrase and Fable.  Cassell,  1991.

 

J. Agel & W. D. Glanze. Cleopatra's Nose, the Twinkie Defense, and 1200 Other Famous Catch Phrases.  Webster's New World,  1990.

 

B. Phythian. A Concise Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Hodder & Stoughton,  1993.

 

P. Dickson. Dickson's Word Treasury: A Connoisseur's Collection of Old and New, Weird and Wonderful, Useful and Outlandish Words.  John Wiley & Sons,  1992.

 

E. Partridge. A Dictionary of Catch Phrases.  1977. 2nd ed. by Paul Beale.  Routledge,  1985.

 

H. Rawson. Dictionary of Euphemisms and Other Double-Talk. Crown,  1981.

 

L. G. Pine. A Dictionary of Mottoes.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1983.

 

N. Rees. Dictionary of Popular Phrases. Bloomsbury,  1990.

 

J. Ayto. Euphemisms. Bloomsbury,  1993.

 

L. Urdang, with C. D. Robbins. Every Bite a Delight and Other Slogans. Visible Ink Press,  1991.

 

G. Brandreth. Everyman's Modern Phrase and Fable. Dent,  1990.

 

R. W. Holder. The Faber Dictionary of Euphemisms. Faber and Faber,  19892.  (A Dictionary of American and British Euphemisms. Bath Univ. Press,  1985 の改訂版)

 

L. Dunkling. The Guinness Book of Curious Phrases. Guinness,  1993.

 

S. B. Flexner. I Hear America Talking: An Illustrated History of American Words and Phrases.  Simon & Schuster, 1976.  (R. C. ゴリス訳編  『フレックスナー アメリカ英語事典』 秀文インターナショナル, 1979)

 

J. S. Neaman & C. G. Silver. Kind Words: A Thesaurus of Euphemisms.  Expanded and rev. ed. Facts on File,  19902. Rpt.  Avon Books,  1991.  (In Other Words. Angus &Robertson,  1991 としても出版; 本名信行,鈴木紀之訳 『英米タブー表現辞典』 大修館書店, 1987)

 

S. B. Flexner. Listening To America: An Illustrated History of Words and Phrases from Our Lively and Splendid Past.  Simon & Schuster,  1982.

 

L. Urdang & C. D. Robbins. Mottoes.  Gale, 1986.

 

E. Partridge. Name into Word.  19502. Rpt. 明倫出版1985.

 

P. Dickson. Names: A Collector's Compendium of Rare and Unusual, Bold and Beautiful, Odd and Whimsical Names. Delacorte,  1986.

 

R. Fergusson. Shorter Dictionary of Catch Phrases. Routledge,  1994.

 

L. Urdang & C. D. Robbins. Slogans.  Gale, 1984.

 

V. Noble. Speak Softly: Euphemisms and Such.  Univ. of Sheffield,  1982.

 

J. Lawrence. Unmentionables and Other Euphemisms. Gentry Books,  1973.

 

N. Rees. Very Interesting...But Stupid́ A Book of Catchphrases from the World of Entertainment.  Unwin, 1980.

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5. 主要参考文献:諺

 

5.1 

 

V. H. Collins. A Book of English Proverbs.  Longman, 1959.

 

P. Houghton. The Cassell Book of Proverbs.  Cassell, 1992.

 

A. Johnson. Common English Proverbs.  Longman, 1954.

 

A. Johnson. Common English Sayings.  Longman, 1958. (Johnson の上記二部作の日本語訳 小野茂訳編 『ロングマン よく使われる英語の慣用句とことわざ事典』  秀文インターナショナル,  1981)

 

J. A. Simpson. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs. Oxford Univ. Press,  19922.

 

W. Mieder et al. A Dictionary of American Proverbs.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

A. Taylor & B. J. Whiting. A Dictionary of American Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases 18201880.  Harvard Univ. Press,  1958.

 

M. Glazer. A Dictionary of Mexican American Proverbs. Greenwood,  1987.

 

M. P. Tilley. A Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.  The Univ. of Michigan Press,  19662.  (1950 年の初版の Rpt. 名著普及会1982)

 

B. J. Whiting. Early American Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases. The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press,  1977.

 

G. L. Apperson. English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases:A Historical Dictionary.  Dent,  1929.  Rpt. Gale,  1969.

 

R. Ridout & C. Witting. English Proverbs Explained. Heinemann,  1967.  (中西英男訳  『常識としての英語の諺 800  北星堂1973)

 

B. Stevenson. The Home Book of Proverbs, Maxims, and Familiar Phrases.  Macmillan,  1948.  Rev. ed. Dodd,Mead,  1961. (初版 1948 年の Rpt. The Macmillan Book of Proverbs, Maxims,and Famous Phrases.  Collier-Macmillan,  1987)

 

B. J. Whiting. Modern Proverbs and Proverbial Sayings. Harvard Univ. Press,  1989.

 

J. K. Feibleman. New Proverbs for Our Day.  Horizon Press,  1978.

 

W. Mieder. Not By Bread Alone: Proverbs of the Bible.  The New England Press,  1990.

 

A. Bertram. & R. Spears NTC's Dictionary of Proverbs and Cliches. National Textbook Co.,  1993.

 

G. Smith. The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs. Rev. by F. P. Wilson. Oxford Univ. Press,  19703.

 

R. Fergusson. The Penguin Dictionary of Proverbs. Penguin Books,  1983. (The Facts on File Dictionary of Proverbs. Facts on File,  1983 としても出版)

 

B. J. Whiting. Proverbs, Sentences, and Proverbial Phrases from English Writings Mainly before 1500.  The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press,  1968.

 

N. Rees. Sayings of the Century: The Stories Behind the Twentieth Century's Quotable Sayings.  George Allen &Unwin,  1984.

 

R. W. Dent. Shakespeare's Proverbial Language: An Index. Univ. of California Press,  1981.

 

大塚高信, 高瀬省三編 『英語諺辞典』  三省堂1976.

 

曽根田憲三, ケネス・アンダーソン 『英語ことわざ用法辞典』  大学書林, 1987.

 

ピーター・ミルワード 『イギリス人のことばと知恵』  朝日イブニングニュース社, 1978.

 

池田彌三郎, ドナルド・キーン監修, 常名鉾二郎編 『日英故事ことわざ辞典』 朝日イブニングニュース社,  1982.

 

5.2 その他

 

F. Archer. Country Sayings.  A. Sutton,  1990.

 

E. Strauss. Dictionary of European Proverbs.  3 vols. Routledge,  1993.

 

W. Mieder. The Prentice-Hall Encyclopedia of World Proverbs:A Treasury of Wit and Wisdom Through the Ages. Prentice-Hall,  1986.

 

S. G. Champion. Racial Proverbs: A Selection of the World's Proverbs Arranged Linguistically.  Barnes and Noble, 19502.

 

H. Davidoff. A World Treasury of Proverbs from Twenty-five Languages. Cassell,  19612.

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6. 主要参考文献:引用句

 

6.1 一般引用句

 

R. D. Pasquariello. Almanac of Quotable Quotes from 1991.  Prentice Hall,  1992.

 

A. Applewhite et al. And I Quote.  St. Martin's Press,  1992.

 

J. Bartlett. Familiar Quotations: A Collection of Passages, Phrases, and Proverbs Traced to Their Sources in Ancient and Modern Literature.  Ed. by J. Kaplan.  Little,Brown,  199216.

 

G. Benham. Benham's Book of Quotations, Proverbs and Household Words.  1907.  Rpt.  Harrap,  1948.

 

A. Stibbs & J. Daintith. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Concise Quotations. Bloomsbury,  1992.

 

J. Daintith et al. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Quotations. Bloomsbury,  19912.

 

J. Daintith et al. Bloomsbury Thematic Dictionary of Quotations. Bloomsbury,  19902.

 

B. Rowes. The Book of Quotes.  E. P. Dutton,  1979.

 

A. K. Adams. Cassell's Book of Humorous Quotations. Cassell,  1969.

 

N. Rees. Chambers Dictionary of Modern Quotations. Chambers,  1993.

 

E. Wright. Chronological Dictionary of Quotations. Rev. ed.  Bloomsbury,  1993.

 

D. Fraser. Collins Concise Dictionary of Quotations. Collins,  1983.

 

D. Fraser. Collins Dictionary of Quotations.  Collins, 1988.

 

Collins Dictionary of Thematic Quotations. Harper Collins,  1992.

 

R. Andrews. The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations. Columbia Univ. Press,  1993.

 

R. Andrews. The Concise Columbia Dictionary of Quotations. Columbia Univ. Press,  1987.

 

A. Partington. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Oxford Univ. Press,  19933.

 

E. P. Murphy. The Crown Treasury of Relevant Quotations. Crown,  1978.

 

R. Hyman. A Dictionary of Famous Quotations.  Bell &Hyman,  19732.

 

M. Stephens. A Dictionary of Literary Quotations. Routledge,  1989.

 

F. Metcalf. The Dictionary of Modern Humorous Quotations. Viking,  1986.

 

B. Evans. Dictionary of Quotations.  Delacorte Press,  1968.

 

S. Cole & A. Lass. Dictionary of 20th Century Allusions. Facts on File,  1991.

 

D. C. Browning. Everyman's Dictionary of Quotations and Proverbs. Dent,  1951.

 

E. Partridge. A First Book of Quotations.  Hamish Hamilton,  1958.

 

G. Seldes. The Great Quotations.  Lyle Stuart,  1960.

 

R. Fergusson. The Hamlyn Dictionary of Quotations.  Hamlyn, 1989.

 

R. I. Fitzhenry. The Harper Book of Quotations. HarperCollins,  19933.  (カナダでは Fitzhenry &Whiteside Book of Quotations として, イギリスでは The Chambers Book of Quotations として出版)

 

C. F. Lamb. Harrap's Book of Humorous Quotations. Harrap,  1990.

 

B. Stevenson. The Home Book of Quotations: Classical and Modern.  Dodd, Mead,  196710.

 

R. T. Tripp. The International Thesaurus of Quotations. Harper & Row,  1970.

 

S. Ichikawa et al. The Kenkyusha Dictionary of English Quotations.  Kenkyusha,  1952.

 

J. Daintith et al. The Macmillan Dictionary of Quotations. Macmillan,  1987.

 

J. Green. Morrow's International Dictionary of Contemporary Quotations. William Morrow,  1982.

 

H. L. Mencken. A New Dictionary of Quotations on Historical Principles from Ancient and Modern Sources.  Knopf, 1942.

 

H. Rawson & M. Miner. The New International Dictionary of Quotations. Dutton,  19932.

 

J. M. Cohen & M. J. Cohen. The New Penguin Dictionary of Quotations. Penguin Books,  1992.

 

J. Smith & S. Donadio et al. The New York Public Library Book of Twentieth-Century American Quotations.  Warner Books,  1992.

 

T. Augarde. The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations. Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

A. Partington. The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Oxford Univ. Press,  19924.

 

M. J. Cohen & J. M. Cohen. The Penguin Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Quotations.  Viking,  1993.

 

Q. Crisp. Quentin Crisp's Book of Quotations. Macmillan,  1989.

 

A. Lewis. The Quotable Quotations Books.  Harper &Row,  1980.

 

L. Peter. Quotations for Our Time.  William Morrow,  1977.

 

J. Daintith & A. Stibbs. Quotations for Speeches. Bloomsbury,  1992.

 

R. Hyman. Robin Hyman's Dictionary of Quotation. Bell & Hyman,  1962.  Rpt.  National Textbook Co., 1985.

 

R. Andrews. The Routledge Dictionary of Quotations. Routledge,  1987.

 

J. Green. Says Who?: A Guide to the Quotations of the Century.  Longman,  1988.

 

J. S. Simpson. Simpson's Contemporary Quotations: The Most Notable Quotes since 1950.  Houghton Mifflin,  1988.

 

20th Century Quotations.  Sphere Books,  1984.

 

J. B. Simpson. Webster II New Riverside Desk Quotations. Houghton Mifflin,  1992.

 

E. E. Brussell. Webster's New World Dictionary of Quotable Definitions. Prentice Hall,  19882.

 

N. Rees. Why Do We Quote?  Blandford Press,  1989.

 

外山滋比古ほか編 『英語名句事典』  大修館書店,  1984.

 

G. F. ラム編, 横山徳爾訳編 『ロングマン英語引用句辞典』  朝日イブニングニュース社, 1986.

 

6.2 特殊引用句

 

L. Urdang & F. G. Ruffner, Jr. AllusionsCultural, Literary, Biblical,and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary.  Gale,  19862.

 

M. Dewar. An Anthology of Military Quotations. Robert Hale,  1990.

 

N. Guterman. The Archer Book of Latin Quotations. Doubleday,  1990.

 

L. L. Levinson. Bartlett's Unfamiliar Quotations.  Contemporary Books,  1971.

 

R. Maggio. The Beacon Book of Quotations by Women. Beacon,  1992.

 

A. Room. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Dedications. Bloomsbury,  1990.

 

N. Rees. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Phrase and Allusion. Bloomsbury,  1991.

 

E. Weber. The Book of Business Quotations.  Business Books,  1991.

 

S. McMahon. A Book of Irish Quotations.  Gill &Macmillan,  1990.

 

R. Flesch. The Book of Unusual Quotations.  Cassell, 19643.

 

M. Manser. Chambers Bible Quotations. Chambers,  1990.

 

M. Manser. Chambers Business Quotations. Chambers,  1990.

 

T. Crawley. Chambers Film Quotes. Chambers,  1990.

 

D. Watson. Chambers Music Quotations. Chambers,  1990.

 

G. F. Lamb. Chambers Shakespeare Quotations. Chambers,  1992.

 

S. James. Chambers Sporting Quotations. Chambers,  1990.

 

E. P. Hazen. The Columbia Granger's Dictionary of Poetry Quotations.  Columbia Univ. Press,  1992.

 

R. L. Smith. The Comedy Quote Dictionary. Doubleday,  1992.

 

D. Grote. Common Knowledge: A Reader's Guide to Literary Allusions.  Greenwood,  1987.

 

J. Green. The Cynic's Lexicon: A Dictionary of Amoral Advice.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1984.

 

A. H. Lass et al. Dictionary of Allusions.  Sphere Books,  1989.

 

I. Crofton. A Dictionary of Art Quotations. Routledge,  1991.

 

J. Wintle & R. Kenin. The Dictionary of Biographical Quotation of British and American Subjects.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1978.

 

S. James & R. Parker. A Dictionary of Business Quotations. Routledge,  1990.

 

A. H. Lass et al. Dictionary of Classical, Biblical and Literary Allusions.  Facts on File,  1988.

 

S. James. A Dictionary of Economic Quotations. Croom Helm,  19842.

 

J. Simpson. A Dictionary of Economic Quotations. Barnes & Nobles,  1981.

 

K. Goldstein-Jackson. The Dictionary of Essential Quotations. Croom Helm,  1983.

 

H. P. Jones. Dictionary of Foreign Phrases and Classical Quotations. New and rev. ed.  John Grant,  1949.

 

I. Crofton & D. Fraser. A Dictionary of Musical Quotations. Routledge,  1990.

 

L. Urdang. A Dictionary of Numerical Allusions. Facts on File,  1987.

 

A. J. Ayer & J. O'Grady. A Dictionary of Philosophical Quotations. Blackwell,  1992.

 

R. Stewart. The Dictionary of Political Quotations. Salem House,  1984.

 

M. Miner & H. Rawson. A Dictionary of Quotations from Shakespeare. Dutton,  1992.

 

M. Pepper. The Dictionary of Religious Quotations. Andre Deutsch,  1989.  Rpt.  Pan Books,  1991.

 

A. L. Mackay. A Dictionary of Scientific Quotations. Adam Hilger,  1991.

 

W. Mieder & S. A. Kingsbury. A Dictionary of Wellerisms. Oxford Univ. Press,  1994.

 

F. S. Mead. Encyclopedia of Religious Quotations. Peter Davis,  1965.

 

D. C. Browning. Everyman's Dictionary of Shakespeare Quotations. Dent,  19705.

 

C. Jarman. The Guinness Book of Poisonous Quotes. Guinness,  1991.

 

B. Michele. The Guinness Book of Theatrical Quotations. Guinness,  1993.

 

C. R. Lightfoot. Handbook of Business Quotations.  Gulf, 1991.

 

V. Kline. Last Lines: An Index to the Last Lines of Poetry.  2 vols.  Facts on File,  1991.

 

C. Warner. The Last Words: A Treasury of Women's Quotes.  Prentice Hall,  1992.

 

L. Rosten. Leo Rosten's Treasury of Jewish Quotations. McGraw-Hill,  1972.

 

A. Stibbs. Like a Fish Needs a Bicycle. Bloomsbury,  1992.  Rpt. Words of Women. Bloomsbury,  1993.

 

J. R. Griffith &T. A. Joscelyne. Longman Guide to Shakespeare Quotations. Longman,  1985.

 

D. L. Sills & R. K. Merton. The Macmillan Book of Social Science Quotations:Who Said What, When, and Where.  Macmillan, 1991.

 

L. D. Eigen & J. P. Siegel. The Macmillan Dictionary of Political Quotations.  Macmillan,  1993.

 

J. Daintith. Medical Quotes: A Thematic Dictionary.  Facts on File,  1989.

 

J. R. Conlin. The Morrow Book of Quotations in American History. Morrow Books,  1984.

 

M. Stephens. A Most Peculiar People: Quotations about Wales and the Welsh.  Univ. of Wales Press,  1992.

 

H. Haun. The Movie Quote Book. Lippincott,  1980.

 

T. Edwards. The New Dictionary of Thoughts: A Cyclopedia of Quotations.  New ed.  Doubleday,  1955.

 

J. Gross. The Oxford Book of Aphorisms.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1983.

 

B. MacArthur. The Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Speeches. Viking,  1992.

 

F. Metcalf. The Penguin Dictionary of Jokes, Wisecracks, Quips and Quotes.  Viking,  1993.

 

D. B. Baker. Power Quotes.  Visible Ink Press,  1991.

 

D. Schranger & E. Frost. The Quotable Lawyer.  Facts on File,  1986.

 

E. Partnow. The Quotable Women: 18001981.  Rev. ed.  Facts on File,  1982.

 

A. King. Quotations in Black.  Greenwood Press,  1981.

 

P. Yapp. The Traveller's Dictionary of Quotations. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1983.

 

H. V. Prochnow. Treasury of Religious Quotations.  Harper &Row,  1969.

 

W. H. Auden & L. Kronenberger. The Viking Book of Aphorisms: A Personal Selection.  Viking,  1962.

 

L. L. Levinson. Webster's Unafraid Dictionary.  Collier Books,  1967.

 

J. B. Simpson. Webster's II New Riverside Desk Quotations. Houghton Mifflin,  1992.

 

D. Powell. The Wisdom of the Novel: A Dictionary of Quotations.  Garland,  1985.

 

田中秀央, 落合太郎編 『ギリシア ラテン引用語辞典』  新増補版 岩波書店, 1963.

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7. 主要参考文献:語法

 

7.1 文法・語法一般

 

R. Flesch. The ABC of Style.  Harper &Row,  1964.

 

R. H. Copperud. American Usage and Style: The Consensus. Van Nostrand Reinhold,  1980.

 

J. N. Hook. The Appropriate Word: Finding the Best Way to Say What You Mean.  Addison-Wesley,  1990.

 

G. Leech. An AZ of English Grammar and Usage.  Edward Arnold,  1989.

 

J. K. Bell & A. A. Cohn. Bell and Cohn's Handbook of Grammar,Style, and Usage.  Macmillan,  19813.

 

M. Manser. Bloomsbury Good Word Guide. Bloomsbury,  19902.  (初版アメリカ版が M. H. Manser with J. McQuain.  The World Almanac Guide to Good Word Usage.  Pharos Books,  1989)

 

C. Timmons & F. Gibney. Britannica Book of English Usage. Doubleday/Britannica,  1980.

 

T. M. Bernstein. The Careful Writer. Atheneum,  1965.

 

T. Storrie & J. Matson. Cassell English Usage.  Cassell, 1991.

 

G. W. Davidson. Chambers Pocket Guide to Good English. Chambers,  1985.

 

J. Sinclair. Collins COBUILD English Usage.  Harper Collins,  1992.

 

R. G. Hardie. Collins Gem Dictionary of English Usage. Harper Collins,  19912.

 

K. G. Wilson. The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Columbia Univ. Press,  1993.

 

E. Gowers. The Complete Plain Words.  Rev. ed. by S. Greenbaum & J. Whitcut.  Her Majesty's Stationery Office,  19863.

 

S. Baker. The Complete Stylist and Handbook.  Harper &Row,  19843.

 

M. A. De Vries. The Complete Word Book: The Practical Guide to Anything and Everything You Need to Know about Words and How to Use Them.  Prentice Hall,  1991.

 

R. Quirk et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman,  1985.

 

B. A. Phythian. A Concise Dictionary of Correct English. Rev. ed.  Hodder Stoughton,  19933.

 

M. Bryant. Current American Usage.  Funk &Wagnalls,  1962.

 

F. T. Wood. Current English Usage.  Rev. by R. H. Flavell & L. M. Flavell.  Macmillan,  1981.

 

M. Nicholson. A Dictionary of American-English Usage. Oxford Univ. Press,  1957.

 

B. Evans & C. Evans. A Dictionary of Contemporary American Usage. Random House,  1957.

 

H. Dahlskog. A Dictionary of Contemporary and Colloquial Usage. Avenel Books,  1972.

 

K. Hudson. The Dictionary of Diseased English. Macmillan,  1977.

 

H. G. Nickles. The Dictionary of Do's and Dont's: A Guide for Writers and Speakers.  McGraw-Hill,  1974.

 

W. Friedrich & A. Rich. Dictionary of English Grammar in Context. Verlag Lambert Lensing,  1982.

 

A. Leonhardi & B. W. W. Welsh. Dictionary of English Usage. Verlag Lambert Lensing,  1966.  Rpt.  主婦の友社1977.

 

L. Dunkling. A Dictionary of Epithets and Terms of Address. Routledge,  1990.

 

K. Hudson. The Dictionary of Even More Diseased English. Macmillan,  1983.

 

S. G. McKaskill. A Dictionary of Good English.  Inkata Press,  1977.  Rpt. with revisions.  Macmillan,  1981.

 

W. J. Ball. Dictionary of Link Words in English Discourse. Macmillan,  1986.

 

H. W. Horwill. A Dictionary of Modern American Usage. Oxford Univ. Press,  19442.

 

H. G. Fowler. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Rev. by Sir E. Gowers.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19652.

 

H. Shaw. Dictionary of Problem Words and Expressions. Rev. ed.  McGraw-Hill,  1987.

 

T. M. Bernstein. Do's, Don'ts and Maybes of English Usage.  Times Books,  1977.

 

W. Strunk, Jr. &E. B. White. The Elements of Style. Macmillan,  19793.

 

J. M. Bailie & M. Kitchin. Essential Guide to English Usage. Chancellor Press,  1988.

 

H. Fieldhouse. Everyman's Good English Guide.  Dent, 1982.

 

G. Howard. The Good English Guide: English Usage in the 1990s.  Macmillan,  1993.

 

L. A. Hill. A Guide to Correct English.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19682.

 

A. S. Hornby. Guide to Patterns and Usage in English. Oxford Univ. Press,  19752.  (伊藤健三訳注 『英語の型と語法』 オックスフォード大学出版局,  1977)

 

J. W. Corder. Handbook of Current English.  Scott,Foresman,  19816.

 

E. D. Johnson. The Handbook of Good English.  Rev. ed. Pocket Books,  19912.

 

J. C. Hodgson & M. E. Whitten. The Harbrace College Handbook. Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich,  199412.

 

E. Ehrlich & D. Murphy. The Harper Collins Concise Dictionary of English Usage.  Harper Perennial, 1991.

 

W. Morris & M. Morris. Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage. Harper & Row,  19852.

 

Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers at the University Press Oxford.  Oxford Univ. Press, 198339.

 

W. R. Ebbitt & D. R. Ebbitt. Index to English.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19908.

 

L. Todd & I. Hancock. International English Usage. Croom Helm,  1986.

 

H. R. Folwer et al. The Little, Brown Handbook. Little, Brown,  19863.

 

J. B. Heaton & N. D. Turton. Longman Dictionary of Common Errors. Longman,  1987.

 

S. Greenbaum & J. Whitcut. Longman Guide to English Usage. Longman,  1988.

 

R. F. Willson, Jr. et al. The Macmillan Handbook of English. Macmillan,  19827.

 

D. Crystal. Making Sense of English Usage. Chambers,  1991.

 

T. M. Bernstein. Miss Thistlebottom's Hobgoblins.  Farrar, Straus & Giroux,  1971.  Rpt. Simon & Schuster,  1984.

 

W. Follett. Modern American Usage.  Ed. and completed by J. Barzun.  Hill & Wang,  1966.

 

N. Lewis. The New American Dictionary of Good English:An AZ Guide to Grammar and Correct Usage. Signet,  1987.

 

H. P. Guth. New English Handbook. Wadsworth,  19852.

 

J. B. Heaton & J. P. Stocks. Overseas Students' Companion to English Studies.  Longman,  1966.  (松浪有訳  『ロングマン英語正用法辞典』 三省堂, 1974)

 

The Oxford Dictionary for Scientific Writers and Editors.   Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

I. C. B. Dear. Oxford English: A Guide to the Language.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1986.

 

E. S. C. Weiner &J. M. Hawkins. Oxford Guide to the English Language. Oxford Univ. Press,  1984.

 

E. S. C. Weiner &A. Delahunty. The Oxford Guide to English Usage. New ed.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19932.

 

R. E. Allen. The Oxford Writers' Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.  (旧版は The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. 1981)

 

B. Bryson. The Penguin Dictionary for writers and Editors. Viking,  1991.

 

N. Rees. The Politically Correct Phrasebook:What They Say You Can and Cannot Say in 1990s.  Bloomsbury, 1993.

 

M. Swan. Practical English Usage.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1980.  (金子稔ほか訳 『実例  現代英語用法辞典』 桐原書店, 1985)

 

N. H. Mager & S. K. Mager. Prentice Hall Encyclopedic Dictionary of English Usage.  Rev. by J. Domini. Prentice Hall,  19932.

 

G. Leggett et al. Prentice Hall Handbook for Writers. Prentice Hall,  198810.

 

R. O. Shipman. A Pun My Word: A Humorously Enlightened Path to English Usage.  Rowman & Littlefield, 1991.

 

D. Ratty, with P. Davies. Reader's Digest Success with Words:A Guide to American Language.  The Reader's Digest Association,  1983.

 

J. E. Kahn. The Right Word at the Right Time: A Guide to the English Language and How to Use It.  The Reader's Digest Association,  1985.

 

V. H. Collins. Right Word, Wrong Word. Longman,  1956.

 

R. Claiborne. Saying What You Mean: A Commonsense Guide to American Usage.  W. W. Norton,  1986.

 

J. J. Lambert. A Short Introduction to English Usage. McGraw-Hill,  1972.

 

J. Barzun. Simple and Direct.  Rev. ed. Harper & Row,  1985.

 

R. Burchfield. The Spoken Word: A BBC Guide. BBC,  1981.

 

M. S. Freeman. A Treasury for Word Lovers.  ISI Press,  1983.  Rpt. Words to the Wise: The Wordwatcher's Guide to Contemporary Style and Usage.  Meridian Book, 1991.

 

E. Partridge. Usage and Abusage.  New and completely rev. ed.  by J. Whitcut.  Hamish Hamilton,  1994.

 

E. W. Gilman. Webster's Dictionary of English Usage. Merriam-Webster,  1989.

 

R. H. Fiske. Webster's New World Guide to Concise Writing. Webster's New World,  1990.

 

B. Randall. Webster's New World Guide to Current American Usage. Webster's New World,  1988.

 

J. O. E. Clark. Word Perfect: A Dictionary of Current English Usage.  Harrap,  1987.

 

J. M. Bremner. Words on Words: A Dictionary for Writers and Others Who Care about Words.  Columbia Univ. Press, 1980.

 

M. S. Freeman. The Wordwatcher's Guide to Good Writing and Grammar. Writer's Digest Books,  1990.

 

G. キルヒナー著, 前島儀一郎ほか訳 『アメリカ語法事典』  大修館書店1983.

 

金口儀明 『英語冠詞活用辞典』  大修館書店1970.

 

石橋幸太郎ほか編 『英語語法大事典』  大修館書店,  1966.

 

渡辺登士ほか編 『英語語法大事典  第三集』  大修館書店, 1981.

 

渡辺登士編 『英語語法活用大辞典』  大修館書店1987.

 

荒木一雄ほか編 『英語表現辞典』  研究社出版,  19852.

 

新島通弘 『英語表現活用辞典』  開拓社1981.

 

大塚高信, 小西友七編 『英語慣用法辞典』 改訂版  三省堂19732.

 

小西友七編 『英語基本動詞辞典』  研究社出版1980.

 

小西友七編 『英語基本形容詞・副詞辞典』  研究社出版,  1989.

 

P. スノードン著, 山本雅三訳 『英語リンクワード活用事典』  北星堂, 1990.

 

荒木一雄編 『英語正誤辞典』  研究社出版1986.

 

田桐大澄編 『英語正用法辞典』  研究社1970.

 

小西友七編 『英語前置詞活用辞典』  大修館書店1974.

 

熊山晶久 『用例中心  英語冠詞用法辞典』  大修館書店1985.

 

三浦新市, ナタリー・リード 『前置詞中心  英語表現辞典』  大修館書店, 1985.

 

渡辺登士ほか編 『続  英語語法大事典』  大修館書店, 1976.

 

7.2 難解語・その他

 

L. Urdang. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Difficult Words. Bloomsbury, 1993.

 

B. A. Phythian. A Concise Dictionary of Confusables.  Hodder &Stoughton,  1989.

 

R. Maggio. The Dictionary of Bias-Free Usage: A Guide to Nondiscriminatory Language.  Oryx,  1991.  Rpt. The Bias-Free Word Finder: A Dictionary of Nondiscriminatory Language. Beacon Press,  1992.

 

I. G. Sparks. Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. Gale,  19852.

 

L. Urdang. The Dictionary of Confusable Words. Facts on File,  1988.

 

A. Room. Dictionary of Confusing Words and Meanings. Routledge,  1985.

 

A. Room. Dictionary of Contrasting Pairs. Routledge,  1988.

 

L. Urdang. Dictionary of Differences.  Rev. ed. Bloomsbury,  19922.

 

J. Ayto. Dictionary of Difficult Words. Hutchinson,  1993.

 

V. Dumond. The Elements of Nonsexist Usage: A Guide to Inclusive Spoken and Written English.  Prentice Hall,  1990.

 

C. Kramarae & P. A. Treichler. A Feminist Dictionary.  Pandora Press,  1985.

 

M. Manser. The Guinness Book of Words. Guinness,  1988.

 

C. Miller & K. Swift. The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing. Harper & Row,  19882.

 

J. Hitt. In A Word: A Dictionary of Words That Don't Exist, But Ought To.  Dell,  1992.

 

L. Urdang. Modifiers.  Gale, 1982.

 

J. H. Byrne. Mrs. Byrne's Dictionary of Unusual, Obscure, and Preposterous Words.  Citadel Press,  1974.  Rpt. Grafton,  1989.

 

W. C. Paxson. The New American Dictionary of Confusing Words. Signet Books,  1990. (小西康夫訳編  『英語適語適用辞典』 北星堂, 1993)

 

L. Urdang. The New York Times Everyday Reader's Dictionary of Misunderstood, Misused, and Mispronounced Words.  Rev. ed.  Times Books,  19852.

 

R. Maggio. The Non-Sexist Word Finder: A Dictionary of Gender-Free Usage.  Oryx,  1987.  Rpt. Beacon Press, 1989.  (笠井逸子訳  『性差別をなくす英語表現辞典』 ジャパンタイムズ, 1990)

 

N. W. Schur. 1000 Most Challenging Words.  Facts on File,  1987.  Rpt. A Dictionary of Challenging Words. Penguin,  1989.

 

N. W. Schur. 1000 Most Important Words.  Facts on File,  1984.

 

N. W. Schur. 1000 Most Obscure Words.  Facts on File,  1990.

 

G. S. Saussy III. The Oxter English Dictionary. Facts on File,  1984.  Rpt. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Words.  Penguin,  1986.  Rpt. The Logodaedalian's Dictionary of Interesting and Unusual Words.  Univ. of South Carolina Press,  1989.

 

B. Bryson. The Penguin Dictionary of Troublesome Words. Penguin Books,  1972.

 

N. W. Schur. Practical English: 1000 Most Effective Words.  Ballantine Books,  1983.

 

A. Room. Room's Dictionary of Confusibles.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1979.

 

F. W. Frank & P. A. Treichler. Theoretical Approaches and Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage.  Modern Language Association of America,  1989.

 

M. Daly. Webster's First New Intergalactic Wickedary of the English Language.  Beacon Press,  1987.

 

P. Hellweg. Weird and Wonderful Words: The Bedside Companion for Insomniacs.  David & Charles,  1986.

 

B. Randall. When Is a Pig a Hog?: A Guide to Confusingly Related English Words.  Prentice Hall,  1991.

 

J. Mills. Womanwords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Patriarchal Society.  Longman,  1989.  Rpt. Virago,  1991.

 

M. E. S. Capek. A Women's Thesaurus: An Index of Language Used to Describe and Locate Information by and about Women. Harper & Row,  1987.

 

J. L. Linfield &J. Krevisky. Word Traps: A Dictionary of the 5000 Most Confusing Sound-Alike and Look-Alike Words.  Innovation Press,  1993.

 

J. G. Robertson. Words for a Modern Age: A Cross Reference of Latin and Greek Combining Elements.  Senior Scribe Publications,  1991.

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8. 主要参考文献:コロケーション・シソーラス・類義語・反意語

 

M. Benson et al. The BBI Combinatory Dictionary of English. John Benjamins,  1986.  (寺澤芳雄監修 『BBI 英和連語活用辞典』 丸善, 1993)

 

G. Kjellmer. A Dictionary of English Collocations: Based on the Brown Corpus.  3 vols. Oxford Univ. Press,  1994.

 

A. Reum. A Dictionary of English Style.  J. J. Weber,1931.  Rpt. 名著普及会1984.

 

W. Friedrich & J. Canavan. Dictionary of English Words in Context. Verlag Lambert Lensing,  1979.

 

L. A. Hill. Prepositions and Adverbial Particles. Oxford Univ. Press,  1968.

 

木塚晴夫 『動詞+名詞 / 英語活用表現辞典』  ジャパンタイムズ1987.

 

勝俣銓吉郎編 『新英和活用大辞典』  研究社1958.

 

8.2 シソーラス

 

R. Costello. American Expressions: A Thesaurus of Effective and Colorful Speech.  Sachem/Norback Book, 1981.

 

A. Seaton et al. Chambers Thesaurus. Chambers,  1986.

 

W. T. McLeod. Collins Thesaurus in AZ Form.  Collins, 1984.

 

S. I. Landau. The Doubleday Roget's Thesaurus of the American Language in Dictionary Form.  Doubleday,  1977.

 

D. Summers. Longman Language Activator: The World's First Production Dictionary.  Longman, 1993.

 

T. McArthur. Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English. Longman,  1981.

 

J. R. L. Bernard. The Macquarie Encyclopedic Thesaurus. Macquarie Univ.,  1984.

 

J. R. L. Bernard. The Macquarie Thesaurus: The Book of Words. Macquarie Library,  1984.

 

L. Urdang. The Oxford Thesaurus: An AZ Dictionary of Synonyms.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.  (アメリカ版は The Oxford Thesaurus: American Edition. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992 として出版)

 

F. Carney and M. Waite.  Penguin Pocket English Thesaurus.  Penguin, 1985.

 

J. Stein & S. B. Flexner. The Random House Thesaurus. Random House,  1984.

 

S. Glazier. Random House Word Menu.  Random House,  1992.

 

R. L. Chapman. Roget's International Thesaurus.  Harper Collins,  19925.

 

S. M. Lloyd. Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. New ed. by B. Kirkpatrick.  Longman,  1987.

 

B. A. Kipfer. Roget's 21st Thesaurus in Dictionary Form. Dell,  1992.

 

J. I. Rodale. The Synonym Finder.  Completely rev. by L. Urdang & N. LaRoche.  Rodale Press,  1978.  Rpt. 明倫出版1987.

 

C. Laird. Webster's New World Thesaurus.  New rev. ed. Updated by W. Lutz.  Prentice Hall,  1985.

 

Webster's Collegiate Thesaurus. Merriam-Webster,  1988.

 

J. I. Rodale. The Word Finder.  Rodale Books,  1947.  Rpt. 明倫出版, 1984.

 

8.3 類義語・反意語・同音語・その他

 

T. M. Bernstein. Bernstein's Reverse Dictionary.  Revised and expanded by D. Grambs.  Times Books,  19882.

 

S. I. Hayakawa. The Cassell Thesaurus: A Comprehensive Guide to Synonymy and Nuance.  Rev. by P. J. Fletcher. Cassell,  1991.

 

M. H. Manser. Chambers Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms. Chambers,  1989.

 

D. Grambs. The Describer's Dictionary: A Treasury of Terms and Literary Quotations for Readers and Writers.  Norton, 1993.

 

S. C. Hunter. The Dictionary of Anagrams. Routledge,  19862.

 

S. N. Williams. The Dictionary of British and American Homophones. Brookside,  1987.

 

Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms. New rev. ed.  David & Charles,  1980.

 

J. B. Hobbs. Homophones and Homographs: An American Dictionary.  McFarland,  1986.

 

A. von Altendorf &T. von Altendorf. ISMs: A Compendium of Concepts, Doctorines, Traits, and Beliefs from ABLEISM to ZYGODACTYLISM.  Mustang Publishing,  1991.

 

M. Walton & P. E. Charlesworth. ISMS: A Dictionary of Words Ending in -ism, -ology, and -phobia, with Some Similar Terms Arranged in Subject Order.  Sheffield & E. P. Publishing,  19722.

 

L. Urdang. Longman Synonym Dictionary.  Longman, 1986.

 

R. Fergusson. New Nutall Dictionary of English Synonyms and Antonyms. Rev. ed.  Viking,  19862.

 

L. Urdang et al. -Ologies and -Isms: A Thematic Dictionary.  Gale,  19863.

 

I. M. Franck. On the Tip of Your Tongue: The Word/Name/Place Finder.  Signet Book,  1990.

 

L. Urdang & M. Manser. Pan Dictionary of Synonyms snd Antonyms. Rev. ed.  Pan Books,  19802.

 

S. I. Hayakawa. Penguin Modern Guide to Synonyms and Related Words. Rev. by P. J. Fletcher.  Penguin, 1987.

 

L. Urdang. Prefixes and Other Word-Initial Elements of English. Gale,  1984.

 

J. E. Kahn. Reader's Digest Illustrated Reverse Dictionary. The Reader's Digest Association, Inc.,  1990.

 

Reader's Digest Reverse Dictionary. Readers Digest,  1989.

 

M. Lehnert. Reverse Dictionary of Present-Day English. VEB Verlag Enzyklopadie,  1971.

 

A. Room. Room's Dictionary of Distinguishables. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1981.

 

L. Urdang. Suffixes and Other Word-Final Elements of English. Gale,  1982.

 

Webster's Compact Dictionary of Synonyms. Merriam-Webster,  1987.

 

P. B. Gove.  Webster's New Dictionary of Synonyms. Merriam-Webster,  1984.

 

J. L. Linfield &J. Krevisky. Word Trap: A Dictionary of the 5,000 Most Confusing Sound-Alike and Look-Alike Words. Collier Books,  1993.

 

斎藤祐蔵 『英語類義語辞典』  大修館書店1980.

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9. 主要参考文献:俗語

 

9.1 一般俗語

 

L. V. Berrey & M. V. den Bark. The American Thesaurus of Slang. Thomas Y. Crowell,  19532.  Rpt., 名著普及会1984.

 

T. Thorne. Bloomsbury Dictionary of Contemporary Slang. Bloomsbury, 1990.

 

D. Anderson. The Book of Slang.  Jonathan David,  1975.

 

C. C. Adams. Boontling, An American Lingo. Univ. of Texas Press,  1971.

 

R. Puxley. Cockney Rabbit: A Dick'n'Arry of Rhyming Slang.  Robson,  1992.

 

B. A. Phythian. A Concise Dictionary of English Slang. Rev. ed. Hodder & Stoughton,  19934.

 

P. Beale. A Concise Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Routledge,  1989.

 

R. A. Spears. Contemporary American Slang.  National Textbook Co.,  1991.

 

S. H. Dill & D. E. Bebeau. Current Slang.  6 vols. Univ. of South Dakota,  19661971.

 

H. Wentworth & S. B. Flexner. Dictionary of American Slang. 2nd supplement ed.  Crowell,  1975.  (R. C. ゴリス, 大久保雪美訳編  『現代スラング英和辞典』 秀文インターナショナル, 1986)

 

H. E. Goldin. Dictionary of American Underworld Lingo. Twayne Publishers,  1950.  Rpt. 名著普及会1983.

 

M. Dodson & R. Saczek. Dictionary of Cockney Slang and Rhyming Slang. Hedgehog Enterprises,  1972.

 

J. Green. A Dictionary of Contemporary Slang. Rev. ed.  Pan Books,  1993.

 

E. Partridge. A Dictionary of Historical Slang.  Penguin Books,  1972.

 

J. Franklyn. A Dictionary of Rhyming Slang.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  19612.  Rpt. with illustrations, 1975.

 

E. Partridge. A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Ed. by P. Beale.  Macmillan,  19848.

 

A. Barrere & C. G. Leland. A Dictionary of Slang, Jargon and Cant. 2 vols.  Ballantyne,  188990.  Rpt. Gale, 1967.

 

E. Partridge. A Dictionary of the Underworld, British and American.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  19683. Rpt. Wordsworth,  1990.

 

A. Sixsmith. Glossary of Roistering Slang.  Bagwash, 1987.

 

G. A. Marks & C. B. Johnson. Harrap's Slang Dictionary. Completely rev. and ed. by J. Pratt.  Harrap,  1984.

 

E. Claire. An Indispensable Guide to Dangerous English for Language Learners and Others.  Delta Systems,  19902.

 

A. Pearl. The Jonathan David Dictionary of Popular Slang. Jonathan David,  1980.

 

D. W. Maurer. Language of the Underworld.  Univ. Press of Kentucky,  1981.

 

J. Morton. Lowspeak: A Dictionary of Criminal and Sexual Slang.  Angus & Robertson,  1989.

 

J. Blowdryer. Modern English: A Trendy Slang Dictionary.  Last Gasp Press,  1985.

 

R. Barltrop & J. Wolveridge. The Muvver Tongue.  The Journeyman Press,  1980.

 

R. L. Chapman. New Dictionary of American Slang.  Harper &Row,  1986.

 

R. A. Spears. NTC's Dictionary of American Slang and Colloquial Expressions.  National Textbook Co.,  1989.

 

J. Ayto & J. Simpson. The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

E. Partridge. The Penguin Dictionary of Historical Slang. Penguin Books,  1972.

 

R. Barker. The Porridge Book of Rhyming Slang. Pan Books,  1989.

 

R. Kray. Reg Kray's Book of Slang.  Wheel and Deal Publications,  1984.  Rpt. Sidgwick & Jackson,  1989.

 

J. Jones. Rhyming Cockney Slang.  Abson Books,  1971.

 

R. Fergusson. Shorter Slang Dictionary. Routledge,  1994.

 

R. A. Spears. Slang and Euphemism.  Jonathan David,  1981.  (山田政美訳編  『英語スラング辞典』 研究社出版, 1989)

 

J. S. Farmer & W. E. Henley. Slang and Its Analogues. 7 vols. Thomas Poulter and Sons, Harrison and Sons, Neil and Co., 18901904.  Rpt. 千城1964. Krau,  1974.

 

P. Dickson. Slang: The Topic-By-Topic Dictionary of Contemporary American Lingoes.  Pocket Books, 1990.

 

J. Green. The Slang Thesaurus.  Elm Tree Books,  1986.  Rpt. Penguin,  1988.

 

E. Partridge. Slang, To-day and Yesterday. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  19704.

 

E. Partridge. Smaller Slang Dictionary.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  19642.

 

D. Burke. Street Talk 1, 2 and 3. Optima Books,  199192.

 

R. L. Chapman. Thesaurus of American Slang.  Harper &Row,  1989.

 

E. Lewin & A. E. Lewin. The Thesaurus of Slang.  Facts on File,  1988.  (The Random House Thesaurus of  Slang. Random House, 1988. としても出版)

 

21st Century Dictionary of Slang. Dell Publishing,  1994.

 

E. E. Landy. The Underground Dictionary.  Simon &Schuster,  1971.  (堀内克明訳編 『アメリカ俗語辞典』 研究社出版, 1975 はこの増補日本語版)

 

P. Wheeler & A. Broadhead. Upper Class Rhyming Slang. Sidgwick & Jackson,  1985.

 

黒川省三, J. R. ランダース 『アメリカ英語のタブー表現 ― 悪態, 侮辱, 卑猥 ―』  ジャパンタイムズ, 1979.

 

J. マケーレブ, 安田一郎 『アメリカ口語辞典』  朝日出版社,  1983.

 

D. キーン, 藤井章雄編 『米英俗語辞典』  朝日出版,  19882.

 

『現代アメリカ俗語辞典』  三省堂,  1969.

 

E. G. サイデンステッカー, 松本道弘 『最新日米口語辞典』 (増補改訂版朝日出版社,  1982.

 

9.2 特殊俗語

 

V. J. Samuels. An ABC of Sexual Words and Phrases. Greenleaf,  1969.

 

G. Irwin. American Tramp and Underworld Slang. Scholastic Press,  1931.  Rpt. Gale,  1971.

 

E. Sagarin. The Anatomy of Dirty Words.  Lyle Stuart,  1962.

 

J. Grahn. Another Mother Tongue: Gay Words, Gay Worlds.  Beacon Press,  1984.

 

D. Burke. Bleeṕ  A Guide to Popular American Obscenities.  Optima Books,  1993.

 

A. Gerber. The Book of Sex Lists. Ballantine,  1984.

 

A. Bickerton. CB Radio English.  Abson Books,  1981.

 

P. Wright. Cockney Dialect and Slang. Batsford,  1981.

 

C. Eble. College Slang 101.  Spectacle Lane Press,  1989.

 

The Complete CB Slang Dictionary. Merit Publications,  19809.

 

J. McBride. The Complete Guide to Baseball Slang:High and Inside.  Warner Books,  1980.

 

P. J. Gillette. The Complete Sex Dictionary.  Tandem, 1969.

 

E. Partridge et al. A Dictionary of Forces' Slang.  Secker &Warburg,  1948.

 

J. McDonald. A Dictionary of Obscenity, Taboo and Euphemism.  Sphere Books,  1988.

 

E. Partridge. A Dictionary of RAF Slang.  Michael Joseph, 1945.  Rpt. Pavilion,  1990.

 

W. Granville. A Dictionary of Sailors' Slang.  Andre Deutsch,  1962.

 

A. Richter. Dictionary of Sexual Slang.  John Wiley & Sons,  1993.

 

J. Trimble. A Dictionary of Sex Words版元出版年無表示.

 

J. R. Elting et al. A Dictionary of Soldier Talk.  Charles Scribner's and Sons,  1984.

 

K. Hudson. Dictionary of the Teenage Revolution and Its Aftermath.  Macmillan,  1983.

 

F. Kogos. Dictionary of Yiddish Slang and Idioms. Paperback Library,  1969.

 

J. Meredith. Dinkum Aussie Slang: A Handbook of Australian Rhyming Slang.  Kangaroo Press,  1991.

 

A. Arango. Dirty Words.  Jason Arenson,  1969.

 

L. Paros. The Erotic Tongue: A Sexual Lexicon. Madrona,  1984.  Rpt. Henry Holt,  1988.

 

J. Trimble. 5000 Adult Sex Words and Phrases.  Brandon House,  1966.

 

R. A. Spears. Forbidden American English.  National Textbook Co., 1990.

 

J. N. Katz. Gay/Lesbian Almanac. Harper,  1983.

 

K. Odean. High Steppers, Fallen Angels,and Lollipops: Wall Street Slang.  Dodd & Mead, 1988.

 

W. Dynes. Homolexis: A Historical and Cultural Lexicon of Homosexuality.  Gai Saber,  1985.

 

E. Rainbird. The Illustrated Manual of Sexual Aids. Minotaur,  1973.

 

R. Todasco. An Intelligent Woman's Guide to Dirty Words. Vol. I of The Feminist English Dictionary.  Feminist English Dictionary,  1973.

 

J. Green. The IT Book of Drugs.  Knullar Publications,  1971.

 

R. Jolly. Jackspeak: The Pusser's Rum Guide to Royal Navy Slanguage.  Culdrose Local ed.,  1988. Palamanando Press,  1989.

 

C. Silverstein &E. White. The Joy of Gay Sex.  Simon &Schuster, 1978.

 

A. Comfort. The Joy of Sex.  Crown, 1972.

 

L. Rosten. The Joys of Yiddish. McGraw-Hill,  1968.  Penguin Books,  1971.

 

C. Major. Juba to Jive: A Dictionary of African American Slang.  Penguin Books,  19942.

 

D. B. Wilmeth. The Language of American Popular Entertainment:A Glossary of Argot, Slang, and Terminology. Greenwood,  1981.

 

T. E. Murry & T. R. Murrell. The Language of Sadomasochism. Greenwood,  1989.

 

M. Carrera. The Language of Sex: An AZ Guide.  Facts on File,  1992.

 

R. M. Goldenson &K. N. Anderson. The Language of Sex from A to Z. Pharos Books,  1986.  (早田輝洋訳  『現代セクソロジー辞典』 大修館書店, 1991)

 

A. Richter. The Language of Sexuality. McFarland,  1987.

 

J. E. Schmidt. Lecher's Lexicon: An AZ Encyclopedia of Erotic Expressions and Naughty Bits.  Bell,  1984.

 

G. J. E. Schmit. Literary Foreplay: A Lexicographer's Guide to Sex.  Eastern Market Press,  1983.

 

E. L. Abel. A Marihuana Dictionary. Greenwood,  1982.

 

L. Barber. The Penthouse Sexindex. Penthouse,  1975.

 

R. A. Wilson. Playboy's Book of Forbidden Words.  Playboy Press,  1972.

 

W. K. Bently & J. M. Corbett. Prison Slang: Words and Expressions Depicting Life Behind Bars.  McFarland,  1992.

 

B. Rodgers. The Queen's VernacularA Gay Lexicon.  Straight Arrow Books,  1972.  (Gay Talk: A Dictionary of Gay Slang. Paragon, 1972 としても出版)

 

H. Sheppard. Railway Slang.  Dillington House,  1964.

 

G. Legman. Rationale of the Dirty Joke.  Jonathan Cape,  1969.

 

W. Granville. Sea Slang of the Twentieth Century. Winchester,  1949.

 

R. Goliad. Scholar's Glossary of Sex. Heinemann,  1968.

 

R. Goldenson & K. Anderson. Sex A to Z.  World Almanac,  1989.

 

W. A. Rossi. The Sex Life of the Foot and Shoe. Ballantine,  1978.

 

R. A. Spears. The Slang and Jargon of Drugs and Drink. Scarecrow,  1986.

 

P. Munro. Slang U.  Harmony Books,  1989.  Rpt. 『最新アメリカ学生スラング辞典』 チャールズ・イー・タトル出版, 1992 (序文のみ訳).

 

B. McConville & J. Shearlaw. The Slanguage of Sex. Macdonald,  1984.  Rpt. Futura Publications,  1985. (水上峰雄監修, 篠原勇次, 星野孝行訳 『性俗語辞典』 河出書房新社, 1989)

 

M. Marple. University Slang.  Williams &Norgate,  1950.

 

I. L. Allen. Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to WASP.  Bergin & Garvey,  1990.

 

The Visual Dictionary of Sex. Pan Books,  1978.

 

H. Rawson. Wicked Words.  Crown, 1989.

 

S. Steinmetz. Yiddish and English: A Century of Yiddish in America.  The Univ. of Alabama Press,  1986.

 

J. L. Linfield &J. Kay. "Your Mother Wears Army Bootś": A Treasure Trove of Insults, Slurs and Putdowns.  Avon Books,  1992.

 

E. ビューラー, 山田政美 『事典 / 危険な英語』  荒竹出版,  1981.

 

村上健編 『最新アメリカ性表現  あぶない英語辞典』  学習研究社, 1990.

 

小鷹信光 『和英ポルノ用語事典』  講談社,  1990.

▲このページのトップへ

10. 主要参考文献:専門語

 

10.1 専門語・特殊用語 (cf. 15.3)

 

Ad Jargon Dictionary.  Wasey Campbell Ewald,  1980.

 

E. Colby. Army Talk: A Familiar Dictionary of Soldier Talk.  Princeton Univ. Press,  1942.

 

A. Gilpin. An Australian Dictionary of Environment and Planning. Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

S. St Maur. The AZ of Video and Audio-Visual Jargon. Routledge,  1986.

 

BBC World Service Glossary of Current Affairs. Longman,  1991.

 

R. S. Epstein & N. Leibman. Biz Speak.  Watts, 1986.

 

BKSTS Dictionary of Audio Visual Terms. Focal Press,  1983.

 

D. Cleaerbaut. Black Jargon in White America.  William B. Eerdmans,  1972.

 

H. C. Black. Black's Law Dictionary.  6th ed. by the Publisher's Editorial Staff and J. R. Nolan and J. M. Nolan-Haley.  West Publishing Company,  1990.

 

D. E. Miller. The Book of Jargon.  Collier Books,  1982.

 

H. Sipra. Canine Terminology.  Harper &Row,  1982.

 

C. Ruse & M. Hopton. The Cassell Dictionary of Literary and Language Terms.  Cassell,  1991.

 

H. Hainworth. A Collector's Dictionary.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1980.

 

J. Gloag. A Complete Dictionary of Furniture. Rev. and expanded by C. Edward.  Overlook Press,  1991.

 

A. H. Morehead. The Complete Hoyle.  Rev. ed. Doubleday,  1991.

 

J. Mitton. A Concise Dictionary of Astronomy.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

E. Martin. Concise Dictionary of Biology.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19902.

 

Alan Isaacs et al. A Concise Dictionary of Business.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

A Concise Dictionary of Chemistry. Oxford Univ. Press,  19902.

 

E. A. Martin. A Concise Dictionary of Law.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19902.

 

A Concise Dictionary of Physics. Oxford Univ. Press,  19902.

 

Concise Medical Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  19944.

 

I. Chilvers. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Arts and Artists. Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

H. Koegler. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Ballet. Oxford Univ. Perss,  19822.

 

A. Allaby & M. Allaby. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

S. Mayhew & A. Penny. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Geography. Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.

 

C. Baldick. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

C. Clapham. A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics. Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

A. C. Baines. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Musical Instruments. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

H. Rosenthal & J. Warrack. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera. Oxford Univ. Press,  19792.

 

M. Allaby. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Zoology. Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

A. Isaacs et al. Concise Science Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19912.

 

C. M. Brown et al. The Concise Veterinary Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1988.

 

J. Hawthorn. Contemporary Literary Theory: A Glossary. Edward Arnold,  1992.

 

R. De Sola. Crime Dictionary.  Rev. and expanded ed. Facts on File,  19882.

 

E. Beekman. The Criminal Justice Dictionary.  Pierian Press,  1979.

 

P. Davies. Davies' Dictionary of Golfing Terms. Simon & Schuster,  1980.

 

P. Dickson. The Dickson Baseball Dictionary.  Facts on File,  1989.

 

L. Urdang. Dictionary of Advertising Terms.  Crain Books,  出版年不明.

 

J. F. Mariani. The Dictionary of American Food and Drink. Ticknor & Fields,  1983.

 

F. E. Perry. Dictionary of Banking.  MacDonald & Evans,  19832.

 

L. Diamant. Dictionary of Broadcast Communications. Greenwood,  19893.  Rpt. National Textbook Co., 1991.

 

D. Parlett. A Dictionary of Card Games.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

D. Cremans. Dictionary of Computer Words.  Houghton Mifflin Company,  1993.

 

V. Illingworth et al. Dictionary of Computing.  Market House Books,  19903.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19913.

 

S. W. Homans. A Dictionary of Concepts in NMR.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19922.

 

I. Makaryk. Dictionary of Contemporary Criticism and Literary Terms.  Univ. of Toronto Press,  1992.

 

R. De Sola & D. De Sola. A Dictionary of Cooking. Meredith Press,  1969.

 

A. King. Dictionary of Cooking Terms.  Forbes Publishing,  1976.

 

D. Walsh & A. Poole. Dictionary of Criminology. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1983.

 

E. L. Abel. A Dictionary of Drug Abuse Terms. Greenwood,  1984.

 

P. J. Hills. A Dictionary of Education.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1982.

 

R. Dobson. A Dictionary of Electronic and Computer Music Technology. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

M. Counihan. A Dictionary of Energy.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1981.

 

J. M. Last. A Dictionary of Epidemiology.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19882.

 

J. Downes & J. E. Goodman. Dictionary of Finance and Investment Terms. Barron's Educational Series,  19913.

 

T. L. Clark. The Dictionary of Gambling and Gaming. Lexik House,  1987.

 

F. J. Chittenden. Dictionary of Gardening.  Rev. ed. by P. M. Synge,  19562.  Supplement by P. M. Synge,  19692. Oxford Univ. Press.

 

A. L. Simon & R. Howe. Dictionary of Gastronomy. Rainbird Reference Books,  1970.  Rpt. The Overlook Press, 1978.

 

R. C. King & W. D. Stansfield. A Dictionary of Genetics. Oxford Univ. Press,  19904.

 

R. L. Trask. A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics. Routledge,  1993.

 

J. Green. Dictionary of Jargon. Routledge,  1987.  (Newspeak: A Dictionary of Jargon,1984 を増補したもの)

 

D. Crystal. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Blackwell,  19913.

 

B. Dupriez. Dictionary of Literary and Rhetorical Devices. Harvester Wheatsheaf,  1991.

 

M. Gray. A Dictionary of Literary Terms.  Longman, 19922.  (丹羽隆昭訳 『英米文学用語辞典』 ニューカレントインターナショナル, 1990. は初版 (1984) の訳)

 

J. A. Cuddon. A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Blackwell,  19913.

 

D. French & H. Saward. A Dictionary of Management. Rev. ed.  Pan Books,  1984.

 

T. N. Dupuy et al. Dictionary of Military Terms.  H. W. Wilson,  1986.

 

W. Y. Carman. A Dictionary of Military Uniform.  Charles Scribner's Sons,  1977.

 

R. Fowler. A Dictionary of Modern Critical Terms.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1973.

 

B. A. Garner. A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage. Oxford Univ. Press,  1987.

 

A Dictionary of Nursing. Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

U. S. Department of Labor. Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Department of Labor,  19774.

 

A. R. Lacey. A Dictionary of Philosophy.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1976.

 

R. Scruton. A Dictionary of Political Thought.  Pan Books,  1982.

 

R. P. Brennan. Dictionary of Scientific Literacy.  Wiley, 1992.

 

N. & R. Timms. Dictionary of Social Welfare.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1982.

 

M. Brander. Dictionary of Sporting Terms.  A. & C. Black,  1968.

 

K. Wales. A Dictionary of Stylistics.  Longman, 1989.

 

H. F. Reading. A Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1977.

 

W. Granville. A Dictionary of Theatrical Terms.  Andre Deutsch,  1952.

 

K. B. Hadjor. Dictionary of Third World Terms.  Tauris, 1991.  With additional entries.  Penguin,  19932.

 

A. Room. Dictionary of Translated Names and Titles. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.

 

U. S. Army. Dictionary of United States Army Terms. Department of the Army,  1975.

 

J. Ayto. The Diner's Dictionary: Food and Drink from A to Z.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.  (Glutton's Glossary.  Routledge,  1990 の改訂版)

 

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. W. B. Saunders,  198827.  (ドーランド医学大辞典編集委員会編 『ドーランド図説医学辞典』 増補 27 . 廣川書店,1991)

 

W. Lambodian. Doublespeak Dictionary.  Pinnacle Books,  1979.

 

N. Allison & S. Allison. Drink's Dictionary.  Collins, 1978.

 

R. Lingeman. Drugs from  AZ: A Dictionary. McGraw-Hill,  1974.

 

A. Ralston & E. D. Reilly. Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Van Nostrand Reinhold,  19933.

 

R. E. Asher & J. M. Y. Simpson. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 10 vols. Pergamon,  1993.

 

Z. Hollander. The Encyclopedia of Sports Talk.  Corwin Books,  1976.

 

D. Crystal. An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Language and Languages. Blackwell,  1992.

 

R. Smith. The Facts on File Dictionary of Artificial Intelligence. Facts on File,  1989.

 

E. F. Penney. The Facts on File Dictionary of Film and Broadcast Terms. Facts on File,  1991.

 

S. Davis. Funk & Wagnalls Cook's and Diner's Dictionary. Funk & Wagnalls,  1968.

 

R. Rogow. FutureSpeak: A Fan's Guide to the Language of Science Fiction.  Paragon House,  1991.

 

J. A. Walker. Glossary of Art, Architecture and Design since 1945.  Rev. ed.  Clive Bingley,  19772.

 

D. Stamp. A Glossary of Geographical Terms.  Longman, 19783.

 

N. A. Hart & J. Stapleton. Glossary of Marketing Terms. Heineman,  19812.

 

F. M. McKenna. A Glossary of Railwaymen's Talk.  Ruskin College,  1970.

 

B. Armstrong. The Glossary of TV Terms.  Barrie &Jenkins,  1976.

 

P. Pepper. Golf Magazine's Encyclopedia of Golf:The Complete Reference.  Harper,  19932.

 

R. Hendrickson. Grand Slams, Hat Tricks and Alley-oops: A Sports Fan's Books of Words.  Prentice Hall,1994.

 

R. A. Lanham. A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms.  Univ. of Calfornia Press,  19912.

 

A. Bullock & S. Thrombley. The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought. Harper & Row,  19882.

 

W. H. Mulligan. A Historical Dictionary of American Industrial Language.  Greenwood,  1988.

 

P. Davies. The Historical Dictionary of Golfing Terms:From 1500 to the Present.  Michael Kesend,  1992.

 

J. Lever & J. Harris. Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture 8001914.  Faber &Faber,  19932.

 

R. V. Vyuckt. International Dictionary of Architects and Architecture. 2 vols.  St. James Press,  1992.

 

N. Thomas. International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers. 5 vols.  St. James Press & Gale, 19932.

 

International Dictionary of Theatre. 3 vols.  St. Jame Press,  199293.

 

J. Trapido. An International Dictionary of Theatre Language. Greenwood,  1985.

 

W. Bright. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 4 vols. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

B. Gunston. Jane's Dictionary of Aerospace Terms. Macdonald & Jane's,  1980.

 

P. C. H. Hayward. Jane's Dictionary of Military Terms. Macdonald & Jane's,  1975.

 

J. Palmer. Jane's Dictionary of Naval Terms.  Macdonald & Jane's,  1975.

 

J. Homer. Jargon.  Times Books,  1979.

 

K. Hudson. The Jargon of the Professions. Macmillan,  1978.

 

R. S. Gold. Jazz Talk. Bobbs-Merrill,  1975.

 

T. Fahey. The Joys of Jargon.  Barron's Educational Series,  1990.

 

K. Hudson. The Language of Modern Politics. Macmillan,  1978.

 

H. E. Selmer et al. The Language of Nuclear War: An Intelligent Citizen's Dictionary.  Harper & Row,  1987.

 

M. Harwood. The Language of Photography.  Star Books,  1981.

 

T. Considine. The Language of Sport.  Facts on File,  1982.  (稲垣安二監修 『アメリカンスポーツ語辞典』 雄松堂出版, 1987)

 

J. L. Dillard. Lexicon of Black English.  Continuum Books,  1977.

 

K. Malmkjaer. The Linguistics Encyclopedia. Routledge,  1991.

 

K. Beckson & A. Ganz. Literary Terms: A Dictionary. Rev. and enlarged.  Andre Deutsch,  19903.

 

P. Strutt. Longman Business English Usage.  Longman, 1992.

 

Longman Dictionary of Business English. Rev. by J. H. Adams.  With additional material by D. Arnold. Longman,  19892.

 

J. C. Richards et al. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics.  New ed. Longman,  19922.

 

Longman Dictionary of Mass Media and Communication.  Longman,  1982.

 

Longman Dictionary of Scientific Usage. Longman,  19842.

 

D. Greenwald. The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Economics. McGraw-Hill,  19932.

 

C. Gipson. The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of International Trade and Finance.  McGraw-Hill,  1993.

 

S. P. Parker. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.  McGraw-Hill,  19945.  (『マグローヒル科学技術用語大辞典第 2 版』 日刊工業新聞社, 1985 は第 3 (1984) の訳)

 

Macmillan Dictionary of Data Communications. Macmillan,  1985.

 

Macmillan Dictionary of Information Technology. Macmillan,  1982.

 

J. Rubash. Master Dictionary of Food and Wine. Van Nostrand Reinhold,  1990.

 

Merriam-Webster's Medical Desk Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,  1993.

 

J. H. Janis. Modern Business Language and Usage in Dictionary Form. Doubleday,  1984.

 

A. Garber. Mountainese.  Commonwealth Press,  1976.

 

H. W. Hitchcock &S. Sadie. The New Grove Dictionary of American Music.  4 vols.  Macmillan,  1986.

 

B. Kernfield. The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz.  2 vols. Macmillan,  1988.

 

E. S. Raymond. The New Hacker's Dictionary.  MIT Press,  19932.

 

M. Griffiths. The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening.  4 vols. Macmillan,  1992.

 

J. Green. Newspeak: A Dictionary of Jargon.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1983.

 

R. A. Spears. NTC's Dictionary of Grammar Terminology. National Textbook Co.,  1991.

 

M. Stephenson & J. Weal. Nuclear Dictionary.  Longman, 1985.

 

T. McArthur. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

S. Chalker. & E. Weiner The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. Oxford Univ. Press,  1994.

 

M. Kennedy. The Oxford Dictionary of Music.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1985.

 

M. Allaby. The Oxford Dictionary of Natural History. Oxford Univ. Press,  1985.

 

J. Warrack & E. West. The Oxford Dictionary of Opera. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

W. Bray & D. Trump. The Penguin Dictionary of Archaeology. Penguin Books,  19822.

 

M. Greener. The Penguin Dictionary of Commerce. Penguin,  1979.

 

G. Bannock et al. The Penguin Dictionary of Economics. Penguin,  19802.

 

N. Abercrombie et al. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology. Penguin,  1984.

 

R. Bennett & J. Watson. Philatelic Terms Illustrated. Stanley Gibbons,  19782.

 

C. Emiliani. Physical Science Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1987.

 

I. Dear. The Pocket Oxford Guide to Sailing Terms. Oxford Univ. Press, 1987.  Rpt. I. Dear & P. Kemp, An AZ of Sailing Terms.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

L. E. Hinsie & J. Shatzky. Psychiatric Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  19896.

 

D. Dalrymple. Pub Talk.  Gothard House,  1975.

 

J. Beck. Rail Talk.  St. James Press,  1978.

 

RMS Dictionary of Light Microscopy. Oxford Univ. Press,  1989.

 

E. A. Folb. Runnin' Down Some Lines: The Language and Culture of Black Teenagers.  Harvard Univ. Press,  1980.

 

W. Safire. Safire's Political Dictionary.  Random House,  19783.

 

L. Lind. Sea Jargon.  Kangaroo Press,  1982.

 

C. Ammer. Southpaws and Sunday Punches: And Other Sporting Expressions.  Dutton,  1993.

 

H. Frommer. Sports Lingo. Atheneum,  1979.

 

D. C. Isby. US Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms.  Rev. ed.  Greenhill,  19902.

 

Vogue Glossary of Fabrics. Conde Nast,  1985.

 

D. L. Scott. Wall Street Words.  Houghton Mifflin,  1988.

 

Webster's New World Dictionary of Computer Terms.  Prentice Hall,  19883.

 

R. Weiner. Webster's New World Dictionary of Media and Communications. Webster's New World,  1990.

 

Webster's New World / Stedman's Concise Medical Dictionary.  Prentice Hall,  1987.

 

R. Copeland. Webster's Sports Dictionary.  G. & C. Merriam,  1976.

 

A. H. Pessin & J. A. Ross. Words of Wall Street.  Dow Jones-Irwin,  1983.

 

10.2 略語・外来語句

 

R. De Sola. Abbreviations Dictionary.  CRC Press,  19928.

 

J. Mossman. Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations Dictionary 1993.  3 parts.  Gale,  199217.

 

F. A. Buttress. Buttress's World Guide to Abbreviations of Organizations.  Rev. by S. Swinbank & H. J. Heaney.  Blackie,  199310.

 

S. W. Miller. A Concise Dictionary of Acronyms and Initialisms. Facts on File,  1988.

 

B. A. Phythian. A Concise Dictionary of Foreign Expressions.  Hodder &Stoughton,  1982.

 

T. Tuleja. A Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases. Robert Hale,  1991.

 

A. Bliss. Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases in Current English. New ed.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1983.

 

J. Paxton. The Everyman Dictionary of Abbreviations. Dent,  19862.  Rpt. with revisions and supplement, 1992.

 

T. Tuleja. Foreignisms: A Dictionary of Foreign Expressions and Commonly (and Not So Commonly) Used in English.  The Stonesong Press,  1989.  Rpt. Collier Books,  1990.

 

US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A Handbook of Acronyms and Initialisms. NRC,  1979.

 

C. O. S. Mawson. The Harper Dictionary of Foreign Terms. Rev. and ed. by E. Ehrlich.  Harper & Row,  19873. Rpt. Le Mot Juste: The Penguin Dictionary of Foreign Terms and Phrases.  Rev. by E. Ehrlich.  Viking,  1988.

 

J. E. Towell & H. E. Sheppard. International Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations Dictionary.  2 vols. Gale,  19933.

 

P. Wennrich & P. Spittner. International Encyclopedia of Abbreviations and Acronyms of Organizations.  6 vols. Facts on File,  198991.

 

L. Urdang & F. R. Abate. Loanwords Dictionary.  Gale, 1988.

 

J. Mossman. New Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations: Volume 2 of Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations Dictionary.  Gale,  199317.

 

E. Ehrlich. Nil Desperandum: A Dictionary of Latin Tags and Useful Phrases.  Robert Hale,  1986.

 

R. Spears & S. R. Kleinedler. NTC's Dictionary of Acronyms and Abbreviations. National Textbook Co.,  1993.

 

J. Daintith et al. The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

E. Pugh. Pugh's Dictionary of Acronyms and Abbreviations. The Library Association,  19875.

 

J. Mossman. Reverse Acronyms, Initialisms and Abbreviations Dictionary 1993.  3 parts.  Gale,  199217.

 

Webster's Guide to Abbreviations. Merriam-Webster,  1985.

 

A. Douglas & M. Strumpf. Webster's New World Dictionary of Acronyms and Abbreviations.  Prentice Hall, 1989.

 

10.3 図解

 

J. C. Corbeil, M. Manser & A. Archambault. The Facts on File Junior Visual Dictionary. Facts on File,  1990.

 

J. C. Corbeil. The Facts on File Visual Dictionary. Facts on File,  1986.

 

A. Mee. I See All.  Amalgamated Press,  192830.  Rpt. 名著普及会1982.

 

M. S. Rosenthal &D. B. Freeman. Longman Photo Dictionary. Longman,  1987.  (British Edition 1988)

 

The Diagram Group. The Macmillan Visual Desk Reference. Collier Macmillan,  1993.

 

J. C. Corbeil & A. Archambault. The Macmillan Visual Dictionary. Macmillan,  1992.  (長崎玄弥総監修 『ワーズワード』 同朋舎出版, 1993)

 

J. Coulson et al. The New Oxford Illustrated Dictionary.  2 vols. Oxford Univ. Press,  19782.

 

J. Pheby. Oxford-Duden Pictorial English Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  1981.  (『オックスフォード・ドゥーデン図解英和辞典』 福武書店, 1983)

 

Oxford Illustrated Encyclopedia. 9 vols.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

Oxford Photo Dictionary.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

R. Bragonier, Jr. & D. Fisher. What's What.  Hammond, 19902.  (堀内克明, 國廣哲彌編 『英語図詳大辞典』 小学館, 1985 は初版(1981)の日本語訳)

 

R. Bragonier, Jr. & D. Fisher. What's What in Sports: The Visual Glossary of the Sports World.  Hammond,  1984.

 

堀内克明編 『学研 I SEE ALL カラー図解英語百科辞典  分野別編』  学研1985.

 

堀内克明編 『学研 I SEE ALL 英語圏・生活・文化情報辞典』  学研1990.

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11. 主要参考文献:新語

 

J. Green. Bloomsbury Neologioms: New Words since 1960.  Bloomsbury,  1991.

 

C. L. Barnhart et al. A Dictionary of New English.  Longman, 1973.  (松浪有監修 『バーンハート英語新語辞典』 秀文インターナショナル, 1982)

 

J. Algeo. Fifty Years Among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms, 19411991.  Cambridge Univ. Press,  1992.

 

F. Spiegl. In-Words and Out-Words.  Elm Tree Books,  1987.

 

S. Mort. Longman Guardian New Words.  Longman, 1986.

 

J. Ayto. The Longman Register of New Words.  Longman, Vol. 1, 1989, Vol. 2, 1990.

 

S. Butler. The Macquarie Dictionary of New Words. Macquarie Library,  1990.

 

J. Pick. The Modern Newspeak.  Harrap, 1984.

 

N. H. Mager & S. K. Mager. The Morrow Book of New Words. William Morrow,  1982.

 

D. K. Barnhart. Neo-Words: A Dictionary of the Newest and Most Unusual Words of Our Times.  Collier Books, 1991.

 

H. LeMay et al. The New New Words Dictionary.  Updated and rev.  Ballantine Books,  1988.  (初版は H. LeMay et al.  New Words Dictionary.  Ballantine Books,  1985)

 

J. A. Simpson & E. S. C. Weiner. Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series. Vol. 1 & 2.  Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.

 

S. Tulloch. The Oxford Dictionary of New Words:A Popular Guide to Words in the News.  Oxford Univ. Press, 1991.

 

C. L. Barnhart, S. Steinmetz & R. K. Barnhart. The Second Barnhart Dictionary of New English. Barnhart Books,  1980.  (R. C. ゴリス,大久保美雪訳編  『バーンハート第 2 英語新語辞典』 秀文インターナショナル, 1991)

 

R. K. Barnhart &S. Steinmetz, with C. L. Barnhart. The Third Barnhart Dictionary of New English. H. W. Wilson,  1990.

 

S. Lerner et al. Trash Cash, Fizzbos, and Flatliners: A Dictionary of Today's Words.  Houghton Mifflin,  1993.

 

F. C. Mish. 12,000 Words: A Supplement to Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,  1986.

 

高部義信 『アメリカ新語辞典』 増訂新版  研究社出版1984.

 

堀内克明ほか編 『最新英語情報辞典  2 版』  小学館19862.

 

広永周三郎, 笹井常三編 『時事英語辞典』 (増訂新版研究社出版1979.

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12. 主要参考文献:地域英語・方言

 

12.1 英・米国内

 

J. L. Dillard. All-American English.  Random House,  1975.

 

W. Q. de Funiak. The American-British, British-American Dictionary with Helpful Hints to Travelers.  Yoseloff,  1978.

 

H. Wentworth. American Dialect Dictionary.  Thomas Y. Crowell,  1944.  Rpt. 名著普及会1981.

 

H. L. Mencken. The American Language.  4th ed. and the two supplements, abridged, with annotations and new material, by R. I. McDavid Jr., with the assistance of D. W. Maurer.  Knopf, 1963.

 

C. Carver. American Regional Dialects: A Word Geography. Univ. of Michigan Press,  1987.

 

J. L. Dillard. American Talk.  Random House,  1976.

 

R. Hendrickson. American Talk: The Words and Ways of American Dialects.  Penguin,  1986.

 

J. L. Dillard. Black English.  Random House,  1972.  (小西友七訳  『黒人の英語』 研究社出版, 1978)

 

N. Moss. The British / American Dictionary.  Rev. ed.  Arrow Books,  19903. (初版は What's the DifferenceAn American-British / British-American Dictionary.  Arrow Books,1973.  Rev. ed. The British / American Dictionary. 1984. 初版の日本語版が山岸勝栄訳編 『えい・べい語考現学』 こびあん書房, 1977.)

 

P. Strevens. British and American English.  Cassell, 1972.

 

N. W. Schur. British English, A to ZED. Facts on File,  1987.

 

D. Grote. British English for American Readers:A Dictionary of the Language, Customs, and Places of British Life and Literature.  Greenwood,  1992.

 

J. Walmsley. Brit-think Ameri-think: A Transatlantic Survival Guide.  Harrap,  1986.

 

A. Warrack. Chambers Scots Dictionary.  Chambers,1911.  Rpt. 1975.

 

R. M. Lederer. Colonial American English: A Glossary. Verbatim,  1985.

 

W. Grant & D. D. Murison. The Compact Scottish National Dictionary. Aberdeen Univ. Press,  1986.

 

A. Warrack. The Concise Scots Dictionary.  Cassell, 1989.

 

M. Robertson. The Concise Scots Dictionary: A New Comprehensive One-volume Dictionary of the Scots Language from the 12th Century to the Present Day.  Aberdeen Univ. Press,  1985.  (この書名から new の取れたものが 1987 年に出版. 現在は副題が The Scots Language in One Volume from the First Records to the Present Day)

 

R. Tabbert. Dictionary of Alaskan English.  Denali Press,  1991.

 

W. A. Craigie & J. R. Hulbert. A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles.  4 vols.  The Univ. of Chicago Press,  193844.

 

F. G. Cassidy. Dictionary of American Regional English. Vol. I.  The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press,  1985.

 

F. G. Cassidy and J. H. Hall. Dictionary of American Regional English. Vol. II.  The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press,  1991.

 

M. M. Mathews. A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles. 2 vols. 1951.  One-volume ed.,  1956.  The Univ. of Chicago Press.  Rpt. 名著普及会1985.

 

G. Zviadadze. Dictionary of Contemporary American English Contrasted with British English.  Tbilisi Univ. Press,  1981.  Rpt. VEB Verlag Enzyklopadie Leipzig,  1987.

 

W. Blevins. Dictionary of the American West.  Facts on File,  1993.

 

P. Watts. A Dictionary of the Old West18501900.  Knopf,  1977.

 

W. A. Craigie et al. A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue. Univ. of Chicago Press,  193173  (Vols. 14).  Aberdeen Univ. Press, 1983   (Vols. 5, 6, 7 ).

 

P. W. Joyce. English as We Speak It in Ireland.  Longmans,Green & Co.,  1910.  Rpt. with an introduction by T. Dolan. Wolfhound,  1979.  藤森一明編 『アイルランド英語研究』 伸光社, 1979

 

J. Wright. The English Dialect Dictionary.  6 vols. Messrs, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent Co., Ltd.,  18981905.  Rpt. Oxford Univ. Press, 1981.  名著普及会1981.

 

N. W. Schur. English English. Verbatim,  19802.

 

J. Jamieson. An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. 2 vols.  W. Creech, 1808.  New ed. by J. Longmuir & D. Donaldson,4 vols.  Alexander Gardner,  187982. Supplement,  1887.  Rpt. AMS Press,  1966.

 

E. S. Deak. Grand Dictionnaire d'Americanismes. Editions du Dauphin S. A. R. L.,  19877.

 

D. Murison. The Guide to Scots Tongue. Blackwood,  1977.

 

I. Mackinnon. Lowland Scots Glossary.  I. Mackinnon,  1966.

 

J. A. C. Stevenson. Scoor-oot: A Dictionary of Scots Words and Phrases in Current Use.  The Athlone Press, 1989.

 

J. D. McClure et al. The Scots Language: Planning for Modern Usage.  Ramsay Head,  1980.

 

I. MacLeod. The Scots Thesaurus.  Aberdeen Univ. Press,  1990.

 

W. Graham. The Scots Wordbook.  Ramsay Head Press,  19803.

 

M. Kean. Scottish-English, English-Scottish. Abson Books,  1972.

 

W. Grant & D. D. Murison. The Scottish National Dictionary. 10 vols.  The Scottish National Dictionary Association,  193176.  Aberdeen Univ. Press,  1976.

 

J. J. Graham. The Shetland Dictionary.  Thule, 1979.

 

H. Orton & W. J. Halliday. Survey of English Dialects. Univ. of Leeds,  196167.

 

M. E. Moore. Understanding British English.  Citadel Press, 1989.

 

R. F. Adams. Western Words.  New ed. Rev. and enlarged.  The Univ. of Oklahoma Press,  19682. Rpt. The Cowboy Dictionary: The Chin Jaw words and Whing-Ding Ways of the American West.  Perigee Book, 1993.

 

R. Hendrickson. Whistlin' Dixie: A Dictionary of Southern Expressions.  Facts on File,  1993.

 

G. Schann & V. Schann. Words and Phrases of Early America. Greenburg Publishing,  1963.

 

L. Todd. Words Apart: A Dictionary of Northern Ireland English.  Colin Smythe,  1990.

 

大島良行編 『アメリカ・ウェスタン辞典』  研究社出版,  1981.

 

田崎清忠編著  『アメリカ日常語辞典』 講談社, 1994.

 

12.2 各国英語 (カナダ・オーストラリア・ニュージーランド・インド)

 

J. O'Grady. Aussie English: An Explanation of the Australian Idiom.  Smith,  1987.

 

A. Delbridge. Aussie Talk: The Macquarie Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms.  Macquarie Library, 1984.

 

R. M. W. Dixon, W. S. Ramson & M. Thomas. Australian Aboriginal Words in English:Their Origin and Meaning.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

W. S. Ramson. The Australian Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  19922.

 

A. Bickerton. Australian-English, English-Australian. Abson Books,  1976.

 

P. Collins & D. Blair. Australian English: The Language of a New Society.  Univ. of Queensland Press,  1989.

 

S. J. Baker. The Australian Language.  The Currawong Press,  19783.

 

W. S. Ramson. The Australian National Dictionary:A Dictionary of Australianisms on Historical Principles.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1988.

 

G. W. Turner. The Australian Oxford Paperback Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  1989.

 

G. W. Turner. The Australian Pocket Oxford Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  19842.

 

A. Godfrey-Smith et al. The Australian Reference Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

B. Hornadge. The Australian Slanguage.  Cassell, 1980.

 

M. G. Clyne. Australian Talks: Essays on the Sociology of Australian Immigrants and Aboriginal Languages. Australian National Univ. Press,  1976.

 

W. S. Ramson. Australian Words and Their Origins. Oxford Univ. Press,  1989.

 

W. A. Krebs. Collins Australian Pocket English Dictionary. Collins,  1981.

 

I. A. Gordon. The Collins New Zealand Compact English Dictionary. Collins,  1984.

 

R. E. Hawkins. Common Indian Words in English.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1984.

 

W. S. Avis. A Concise Dictionary of Canadianisms. Gage,  1973.

 

W. S. Ramson. The Currency of Aboriginal Words in Australian English. Univ. of Sydney,  1964.

 

E. E. Morris. A Dictionary of Austral English. Macmillan,  1898.  Rpt. Sydney Univ. Press,  1972.

 

G. A. Wilkes. A Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms. New ed.  Rev. and reset.  Sydney Univ. Press,  19903.

 

S. J. Baker. A Dictionary of Australian Slang.  New ed. Viking O'Neil,  1988.

 

G. Simes. A Dictionary of Australian Underworld Slang. Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

W. S. Avis. A Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles. Gage,  1967.

 

G. M. Story et al. Dictionary of Newfoundland English. 2nd ed. with supplement.  Univ. of Toronto Press,  1990.

 

T. K. Pratt. Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English. Univ. of Toronto Press,  1988.

 

R. Beckett. The Dinkum Aussie Dictionary.  Child &Henry,  1986.

 

L. Johansen. The Dinkum Dictionary: A Ripper Guide to Aussie English.  Rev. ed.  Viking O'Neil,  1991.

 

S. J. Baker. The Drum: Australian Character and Slang.  Angus & Robertson,  1959.

 

M. Ho & J. T. Platt. Dynamics of a Contact Continuum:Singaporean English.  Clarendon Press,  1993.

 

G. W. Turner. The English Language in Australia and New Zealand. Longman,  1966.

 

R. J. Baumgardner. The English Language in Pakistan.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

B. Hudson. The First Australian Dictionary of Vulgarisms and Obscenities.  David & Charles,  1987.

 

G. Turner. Good Australian English.  Reed, 1972.

 

K. Harber. Heinemann Australian Dictionary. Heinemann,  19873.

 

H. W. Orsman. Heinemann New Zealand Dictionary. Heinemann,  1979.

 

H. Yule et al. Hobson-Jobson.  1886. 2nd ed. by W. Crooke.  1903.  Rpt. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1968.

 

W. Morris. The Houghton Mifflin Canadian Dictionary of the English Language.  Houghton Mifflin,  1969.

 

P. Nihalani et al. Indian and British English.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1979.

 

P. Trudgill & J. Hannah. International English: A Guide to Varieties of Standard English.  E. Arnold,  19943.

 

H. Jonsen. Kangaroo's Comments and Wallaby's Words:The Aussie Word Book.  Hippocrene Books,  1988.

 

N. Keesing. Lily on the Dustbin: Slang of Australian Women and Families.  Penguin,  1982.

 

R. E. Hawkins. The Little Oxford Dictionary of Current English with a Supplement of Indian Words.  Oxford Univ. Press, 19823.

 

The Macquarie Concise Dictionary. Macquarie Library,  19882.

 

A. Delbridge et al. The Macquarie Dictionary.  Macquarie Library,  19912.

 

N. Hudson. Modern Australian Usage.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

E. E. Morris. Morris' Dictionary of Australian Words,Names and Phrases.  O'Neill,  1988.

 

I. A. Gordon. The New Collins Concise Dictionary of the English Language. New Zealand ed. Collins,  1982.

 

E. Gordon & T. Deverson. New Zealand English: An Introduction to New Zealand Speech and Usage.  Heinemann,  1985.

 

R. Burchfield. The New Zealand Pocket Oxford Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  1986.

 

A. Bell & J. Holmes. New Zealand Ways of Speaking English. Multilingual Matters,  1990.

 

T. Rahman. Pakistani English.  Quaidi-Azam Univ.,  1990.

 

J. R. L. Bernard. The Pocket Macquarie Dictionary.  Jacaranda Press,  19882.

 

I. Lewis. Sahibs, Nabobs, and Boxwallahs: The Words of Anglo-India.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

沢田敬也編 『オーストラリア・ニュージーランド英語辞典』  オセアニア出版社, 1987.

 

12.3 その他の地域英語・言語地図 など

 

J. E. Holloway &W. K. Vass. The African Heritage of American English. Indiana Univ. Press,  1993.

 

E. Kolb et al. Atlas of English Sounds.  Francke, 1979.

 

C. Moseley & R. E. Asher. Atlas of the World's Languages. Routledge,  1993.

 

G. M. Dalgish. A Dictionary of Africanisms. Greenwood,  1982.

 

J. A. Holm with A. W. Shilling. Dictionary of Bahamian English. Lexik House,  1982.

 

D. R. Beeton & H. Dorner. A Dictionary of English Usage in Southern Africa.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1975.

 

F. G. Cassidy & R. B. Le Page. Dictionary of Jamaican English. Cambridge Univ. Press,  19802.

 

J. Branford with W. Branford. A Dictionary of South African English. Oxford Univ. Press,  19914.

 

W. A. Kretzchmar, Jr. et al. Handbook of the Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States.  Univ. of Chicago Press,  1993.

 

H. Kurath. Handbook of the Linguistic Geography of New England. 2nd ed. with a map inventory and an index of words and phrases by A. R. Duckert.  AMS Press,  1973.

 

R. Mesthrie. A Lexicon of South African Indian English. Peepal Tree Press,  1992.

 

H. Orton et al. The Linguistic Atlas of England.  Croom Helm & Shubun International,  1978.

 

H. Kurath. Linguistic Atlas of New England.  6 vols. Brown Univ.,  193943.  Rpt. 3 vols.  AMS Press,  1972.

 

J. Y. Mather & H. H. Speitel. The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland. Vol. I,  1975.  Vol. II,  1977.  Vol. III, 1986.  Croom Helm.

 

L. Pederson. Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States. Univ. of Georgia,  19861991.

 

R. I. McDavid, Jr. et al. Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States. Univ. of Chicago Press,  1980.

 

H. B. Allen. The Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest. 3 vols. Univ. of Minnesota Press,  197376.

 

A. R. Thomas. The Linguistic Geography of Wales.  Univ. of Wales Press,  1973.

 

W. Branford. The South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press,  1987.

 

P. M. Anderson. A Structural Atlas of the English Dialects. Croom Helm,  1987.

 

H. Orton & N. Wright. A Word Geography of England. Seminar Press,  1994.

 

H. Kurath. A Word Geography of the Eastern United States. Univ. of Michigan Press,  1949.

 

C. Upton et al. Word Maps: A Dialect Atlas of England.  Croom Helm,  1987.

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13. 主要参考文献:人名

 

13.1 一般人名

 

S. Stetler. Actors, Artists, Authors and Attempted Assassins: The Almanac of Famous and Infamous People. Visible Ink,  1991.

 

V. Smith et al. African American Writers. Scribner,  1991.

 

L. Baechler. African American Writers: Profiles of Their Lives and WorksFrom the 1700's to the Present. Collier Macmillan,  1993.

 

Africa's Who's Who.  Africa Journal,  1981.

 

B. Baer. Almanac of Famous People.  2 vols. Gale,  19945.

 

American Art Directory.  Bowker, 199354.

 

The American Biographical Index. Bowker-Saur,  1991 .

 

B. McGuire et al. American Cultural Leaders. ABC-CLIO,  1993.

 

American Men and Women of Science:A Biographical Directory of Today's Leaders in Physical and Related Sciences.  8 vols. Bowker,  198917.

 

A. Wilder. American Popular Song: The Great Innovators, 19001950.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1972.

 

B. McGuire et al. American Social Leaders. ABC-CLIO,  1993.

 

D. Ewen. American Songwriters.  H. W. Wilson,  1987.

 

V. L. Grattan. American Women Songwriters: A Biographycal Dictionary.  Greenwood,  1993.

 

L. Mainiero. American Women Writers.  4 vols. F. Ungar,  197982.

 

L. Ungar. American Writers.  4 vols. Plus supplement 1 (2 vols.) and Supplement 2 (2 vols.).  Charles Scribner's Sons, 197481.

 

L. Baechler & L. A. Walton. American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies.  Charles Scribner's Sons,  1991.

 

J. A. Levernier &D. R. Wilmes. American Writers Before 1800. 3 vols. Greenwood,  1983.

 

The Annual Orbituary.  St. James Press, 1988 .

 

J. Singh. Austral-Asian Who's Who  19921993.  Oriental Publications,  19912.

 

D. Pyke. Australian Dictionary of Biography. 10 vols. Melbourne Univ. Press,  196686.

 

N. Slonimsky. Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Schirmer Books,  19918.

 

N. Slonimsky. Baker's Concise Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Schirmer Books,  1993.

 

J. G. Melton. Bibliographical Dictionary of American Cult and Sect Leaders.  Garland,  1989.

 

G. M. Fink. Biographical Dictionary of American Labor Leaders. Greenwood,  1974.

 

Biographical Dictionary of American Sports.  Greenwood,  198792.

 

L. Gowing. A Biographical Dictionary of Artists. Macmillan,  1983.

 

R. Kranz. The Biographical Dictionary of Black Americans. Facts on File,  1991.

 

O. Banks. The Biographical Dictionary of British Feminists. Vol. I.  18001930.  Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1985.  Vol. II: A Supplement.  19001945.  Harvester Wheatsheaf,  1990.

 

M. Bell et al. A Biographical Dictionary of English Women Writers,15801720.  Harvester Wheatsheaf,  1990.

 

R. P. Larkin & G. L. Peters. Biographical Dictionary of Geography. Greenwood,  1993.

 

A. M. Brady & B. Cleeve. Biographical Dictionary of Irish Writers. The Lilliput Press,  1985.

 

R. A. Gorman. Biographical Dictionary of Marxism. Greenwood,  1986.

 

Biographical Dictionary of Modern British Radicals.  3 vols. Macmillan,  198488.

 

R. A. Gorman. Biographical Dictionary of Neo-Marxism. Greenwood,  1985.

 

Biographical Dictionary of Republican China.  5 vols.  Columbia Univ. Press,  196779.

 

D. Abbot. The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists. Frederick Muller,  1983.  (中村禎里監訳  『世界科学者事典』 6 +別巻総索引原書房, 198587)

 

J. Vronskaya & V. Chuguev. The Biographical Dictionary of the Former Soviet Union.  Bowker-Saur,  1992.

 

P. E. Sweeney. Biographies of American Women. ABC-Clio,  1990.

 

P. E. Sweeney. Biographies of British Women. ABC-Clio,  1993.

 

T. G. Rush et al. Black American Writers Past and Present. 2 vols. The Scarecrow Press,  1975.

 

L. Metzger et al. Black Writers.  Gale, 1989.

 

K. Robbins. The Blackwell Biographical Dictionary of British Political Life in the Twentieth Century. Blackwell,  1990.

 

C. P. Anderson. The Book of People.  Perigee Book,  1981.

 

D. L. Jones. British and Irish Biographies; 18401940.  14000 fiche.  Chadwyck Healy,  198791.

 

British Biographical Archive. 1400 fiche, 4 vols. Index.  K. G. Saur,  1990.

 

I. Scott-Kilvert. British Writers.  8 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons,  197984.

 

British Writers: Supplement I. Scribner,  1987.

 

G. Stade. British Writers: Supplement II. Scribner,  1992.

 

K. Simpson. Canadian Who's Who Vol. 28 1993. Univ. of Toronto Press, 1993.

 

Celebrity Register 1990. Gale,  19905.

 

M. Magnusson. Chambers Biographical Dictionary. Chambers,  19905.

 

J. Ransley. Chambers Dictionary of Political Biography. Chambers,  1991.

 

R. Goring. Chambers Scottish Biographical Dictionary. Chambers,  1992.

 

D. Bank. A Chronological and Occupational Index to the Dictionary of National Biography.  Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.

 

J. Carroll. The Columbia Dictionary of Political Biography. Columbia Univ. Press,  1991.

 

Concise Dictionary of American Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons, 19643.

 

M. J. Bruccoli. Concise Dictionary of American Literary Biography. 6 vols. Gale,  1987-89.

 

M. J. Bruccoli. Concise Dictionary of British Literary Biography. 8 vols. Gale,  1991-92.

 

E. T. Williams &C. S. Nicholls. The Concise Dictionary of National Biography 190170.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1981.

 

The Concise Dictionary of National Biography:From Earliest Times to 1985.  3 vols. Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.

 

A. L. Morgan & C. Naylor. Contemporary Architects. St. James Press,  19872.

 

C. Naylor. Contemporary Artists.  St. James Press,  19893.

 

D. Olendorf. Contemporary Authors.  Vol. 139.  Gale,  1993.

 

J. Nakamura. Contemporary Authors: Autobiography Series.  Vol. 16.  Gale,  1992.

 

S. N. Trosky. Contemporary Authors: New Revision Series.  Vol. 40.  Gale,  1993.

 

M. L. LaBlanc. Contemporary Black Biography.  2 vols. Gale,  1992.

 

B. Morton & P. Collins. Contemporary Composers.  St. James Press,  1992.

 

C. Naylor. Contemporary Designers.  St. James Press,  19902.

 

D. L. Kirkpatrick. Contemporary Dramatists.  St. James Press,  19884.

 

Contemporary Graphic Artists. Vols. 13.  Gale, 198688.

 

R. B. Browne. Contemporary Heroes and Heroines.  Gale, 1990.

 

E. Borklund. Contemporary Literary Critics.  St. James Press,  19822.

 

M. L. LaBlanc. Contemporary Musicians: Profiles of the People in Music.  4 vols. Gale,  198991.

 

L. Henderson. Contemporary Novelists.  St. James Press,  19925.

 

T. Chevalier. Contemporary Poets.  St. James Press,  19915.

 

C. Naylor. Contemporary Photographers.  St. James Press,  19882.

 

Contemporary Theatre, Film, and Television.  Vols. 110.  Gale, 198493 (続行中).

 

J. Park. Cultural Icons.  Bloomsbury, 1991.

 

D. L. Porter. A Cumulative Index to the Biographical Dictionary of American Sports.  Greenwood,  1993.

 

C. Moritz. Current Biography Yearbook 1987.  H. W. Wilson,  Annually published since 1940.

 

D. Williamson. Debrett's Distinguished People of Today. Debrett's Peerage,  1990.

 

Designers International Index. 3 vols. Bowker-Saur,  19915.

 

Dictionary of African Biography. 2 vols. Melrose Press,  197071.

 

Dictionary of African Biography. Reference Publications,  1977 .

 

A. Johnson & D. Malone. Dictionary of  American Biography.  20 vols. and index, 192737. H. E. Starr.  Supplement I (To December 31, 1935), 1944.  R. L. Schuyler.  Supplement II (To December 31, 1940), 1958.  E. T. James.  Supplement III (194145), 1973.  J. A. Garraty & E. T. James.  Supplement IV (194650), 1974.  J. A. Garraty.  Supplement V (195155), 1977.  J. A. Garraty.  Supplement VI (195660), 1980. Supplement VII (196165), 1981.  J. A. Garraty & M. C. Carnes.  Supplement VIII (196670), 1988.  K. T. Jackson.  Supplement IX (197075), 1994.  Comprehensive Index complete through Supplement VIII, 1990.  Charles Scribner's Sons.

 

R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston. Dictionary of American Negro Biography. Norton,  1982.

 

H. W. Bowden. Dictionary of American Religious Biography. Rev. and enlarged ed.  Greenwood,  19932.

 

J. Todd. A Dictionary of British and American Women Writers 16601800.  Rowman and Allanheld,  1984.

 

Dictionary of Canadian Biography:Index to Volumes I to IV.  Univ. of Toronto Press,  1981.

 

Dictionary of International Biography. Melrose Press.  Annually published since  1963.

 

H. Boylan. A Dictionary of Irish Biography.  Gill &Macmillan,  19882.

 

G. Wigoder. Dictionary of Jewish Biography. Prentice-Hall,  1991.

 

L. Stephen & S. Lee. The Dictionary of National Biography:From Earliest Times to 1900.  [DNB] 22 vols., 1917.  Rpt. 1968.  S. Lee.  DNB 19011911, 1912.  H. W. C. Davis & J. R. H. Weaver.  DNB 19121921,1927.  J. R. H. Weaver.  DNB 192230,1937.  L. G. W. Legg.  DNB 193140, 1949.  L. G. W. Legg & E. T. Williams.  DNB 194150,1959.  E. T. Williams & H. M. Palmer.  DNB 195160, 1971.  E. T. Williams & C. S. Nicholls.  DNB 196170, 1981.  L. Blake & C. S. Nicholls.  DNB 197180,  1986. L. Blake & C. S. Nicholls. DNB 19811985, 1990. Oxford Univ. Press.

 

C. S. Nicholls. The Dictionary of National Biography:Missing Persons.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

Dictionary of Scandinavian Biography. Melrose Press,  19762.

 

Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 8 vols.  Charles Scribner's Sons,  197081.

 

A. Briggs. A Dictionary of Twentieth Century World Biography. Rev. ed.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

Directory of American Scholars. 4 vols.  Bowker,  19828.

 

Directory of Medical Specialists 25th Edition 19911992.  3 vols. Marquis Who's Who,  199125.

 

J. A. Garraty. Encyclopedia of American Biography. Harper & Row,  1974.

 

S. H. Gale. Encyclopedia of American Humorists. Garland,  1988.

 

P. Schlueter & J. Schlueter. An Encyclopedia of British Women Writers. Garland,  1988.

 

K. M. Wilson. An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. 2 vols.  St. James Press,  1991.

 

T. N. Dupuy, C. Johnson & D. L. Bongard. An Encyclopedia of Military Biography. Tauris,  1992.

 

W. H. Taft. Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Journalists. Garland,  1987.

 

B. O'Neal. Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters. Univ. of Oklahoma Press,  1991.

 

A. Crawford. The Europa Biographical Dictionary of British Women. Europa,  1983.

 

S. J. Kunitz & V. Colby. European Authors 10001900: A Biographical Dictionary of European Literature.  H. W. Wilson,  1967.

 

European Biographical Dictionary. European Biographical Directory Database,  1989.

 

European Communities' Who's Who and Other European Organizations.  Editions Delta, 19812.

 

G. Stade. European Writers.  14 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons,  198391.

 

Everyman's Dictionary of Literary Biography. Dent,  19693.

 

Explorers and Discoverers of the World. Gale,  1992.

 

E. Katz. The Film Encyclopedia.  Harper &Row,  1979.

 

Foremost Women of the Twentieth Century. Melrose Press,  1988.

 

H. Oxbury. Great Britons: Twentieth-Century Lives.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1985.

 

M. Grant. Greek and Latin Authors, 800 BCAD 100.  Wilson, 1980.

 

D. M. Greene. Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers. Doubleday,  1985.

 

B. Ryan. Hispanic Writers.  Gale, 1990.

 

The Hutchinson Dictionary of Biography. Helicon,  1993.

 

Index to Marquis Who's Who Books 1993. Marquis Who's Who / Bowker-Saur,  1993.

 

India Who's Who.  INFA Publication,  199121.

 

E. Kay. The International Authors and Writers Who's Who. International Biographic Centre,  199112.

 

E. Bernoff & R. Shore. The International Dictionary of 20th Century Biography.  New American Library,  1987.

 

International Who's Who in Medicine. Melrose Press,  1987.

 

International Who's Who in Music. Melrose Press,  199012.

 

International Who's Who in Poetry. Melrose Press,  19775.

 

The International Who's Who 199394.  Europa Publications,  199357.

 

The International Who's Who of Professional and Business Women.  Melrose Press, 1989.

 

C. Hartley. The International Who's Who of Women. Europa Publications,  1992.

 

G. L. Gronin et al. Jewish American Fiction Writers; An Annotated Bibliography.  Garland,  1991.

 

J. Franklin. Joe Franklin's Encyclopedia of Comedians. Lyle Stuart,  1979.  Rpt. Bell,  1985.

 

The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Biography.  11 vols. and an index volume. McGraw-Hill,  1973.

 

B. Jones & M. V. Dixon. The Macmillan Dictionary of Biography. Macmillan,  1981.

 

J. Uglow. The Macmillan Dictionary of Women's Biography. Macmillan,  19892.

 

B. Ryan. Major 20th-Century Writers.  4 vols. Gale,  1991.

 

Makers of Modern Africa. Africa Journal,  1981.

 

Man of Achievement.  Melrose Press,  1990.

 

E. Showalter et al.. Modern American Women Writers.  Charles Scribner's Sons,  1991.

 

L. Baechler. Modern American Women Writers: Profiles of Their Lives and Works from the 1870's to the Present.  Collier Macmillan,  1993.

 

M. Popkin. Modern Black Writers.  Frederick Ungar,  1978.

 

F. Boase. Modern English Biography.  6 vols. 1892.  Rpt. Frank Cass,  1965.

 

D. Ewen. Musicians since 1900: Performer in Concert and Opera.  H. W. Wilson,  1978.

 

The National Cyclopedia of American Biography.  58 vols. White,  18911975.

 

C. L. Barnhart. The New Century Cyclopedia of Names. 3 vols.  Appleton-Century-Crofts,  1954.

 

L. Mooney. Newsmakers '92.  Gale, 1992.

 

B. Sicheman & C. H. Green, with I. Kantrov & H. Walker. Notable American Women: The Modern Period. The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press,  1980.

 

Notable American Women: 16071950.  3 vols.  The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press,  1971.

 

L. S. Hubbard. Notable Americans: What They Did,from 1620 to the Present.  Gale,  19884.

 

J. C. Smith. Notable Black American Women.  Gale, 1992.

 

One Thousand Makers of the Twentieth Century. The Sunday Times,  1991.

 

F. C. Roberts. Orbituaries from The Times.  3 vols. Newspaper Archive Developments,  196978.

 

J. Shattock. The Oxford Guide to British Women Writers. Oxford Univ. Press,  1993.

 

G. Payton. The Penguin Dictionary of Proper Names. Rev. and updated by J. Paxton. Viking,  1991.

 

D. Brownstone & I. M. Franck. People in the News.  1993 ed. Macmillan,  1993.

 

B. Reich. Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood,  1990.

 

E. L. Crowley et al. Prominent Personalities in the USSR. Scarecrow,  1968.

 

J. G. Melton. Religious Leaders of America.  Gale, 1991.

 

R. Benewick & P. Green. The Routledge Dictionary of 20th-Century Political Thinkers.  Routledge,  1992.

 

P. Wicholls. The Science Fiction Encyclopedia.  Dolphin Books,  1979.

 

E. F. Bleiler. Science Fiction Writers. Scribner,  1982.

 

D. Olendorf. Something about the Author.  Gale, 1971.

 

R. Tee. Soul Music Who's Who.  George Weidenfeld & Nicolson,  1991.

 

A. Brown. The Soviet Union: A Biographical Dictionary.  Weidenfeld & Nicholson,  1990.

 

E. F. Bleiler. Supernatural Fiction Writers: Fantasy and Horror.  2 vols.  Charles Scribner's Sons,  1985.

 

Supplement to Marquis Who's Who in America. Marquis Who's Who, 199247.

 

L. Geron. The Tauris Directory of Russia and Republics:A Who's Who of the New Elite.  Tauris,  19922.

 

R. Turner. Thinkers of the Twentieth Century.  St. James Press,  19872.

 

S. J. Kunitz and H. Haycraft. Twentieth Century Authors:A Biographical Dictionary of Modern Literature.  H. W. Wilson,  1942.

 

S. J. Kunitz and V. Colby. Twentieth Century Authors:First Supplement: A Biographical Dictionary of Modern Literature. H. W. Wilson,  1955.

 

T. Chevalier. Twentieth-Century Children's Writers. St. James Press,  19903.

 

L. Henderson. Twentieth-Century Crime and Mystery Writers. St. James Press,  19913.

 

L. Henderson. Twentieth-Century Romance and Historical Writers. St. James Press,  19902.

 

P. E. Schllinger. Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers. St. James Press,  19923.

 

G. Sadler. Twentieth-Century Western Writers.  St. James Press,  19912.

 

C. Van Doren. Webster's American Biographies.  G. & C. Merriam,  1984.

 

G. Payton. Webster's Dictionary of Proper Names. G. & C. Merriam,  1970.

 

Webster's New Biographical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,  1988.

 

J. Eastmann. Who Lived Where: A Biographical Guide to Homes and Museums.  Facts on File,  1983.

 

R. C. Miller. Who's Really Who.  Blond &Briggs,  1983.

 

Who's Who 1994.  A & C Black, 1994146.

 

I. Cloyd. Who's Who among Black Americans.  Gale, 19927.

 

A. L. Unterburger. Who's Who among Hispanic Americans. Gale,  19922.

 

Who's Who and What and Where in Ireland. Chapman,  1973.

 

Who's Who in America 1994. 3 vols.  Marquis Who' Who,  199348.

 

Who's Who in American Art. Bowker,  199320.

 

Who's Who in American Law. Marquis Who's Who,  19896.

 

Who's Who in American Politics. Marquis Who's Who,  198912.

 

Who's Who in Australasia and the Far East.  Melrose Press,  1989.

 

G. Treasure. Who's Who in British History.  8 vols. Shepheard-Walwyn,  刊行中.

 

Who's Who in Entertainment. Marquis Who's Who,  19922.

 

Who's Who in Europe. Serri-Tech,  19835.

 

Who's Who in European Politics. Bowker-Saur,  19922.

 

Who's Who in Finance and Industry. 27th ed. 19921993.  Marquis Who's Who,  1991.

 

Who's Who in France: Qui est qui en France.  J. Lafitte,  199224.

 

Who's Who in Germany.  1993 ed. Who's Who Verlag,  1993.

 

Who's Who in History.  3 vols. Blackwell,  1980.

 

D. Ragan. Who's Who in Hollywood.  2 vols. Facts on File,  1992.

 

R. Karney. Who's Who in Hollywood. Bloomsbury,  1993.

 

Who's Who in Industry 1991. Blackwell,  1991.

 

Who's Who in International Organization. 3 vols.  K. G. Saur,  1993.

 

M. Cairnduff. Who's Who in Ireland.  Versey Publications,  1984.

 

Who's Who in Japan.  Bowker-Saur, 19923.

 

G. M. Bustros. Who's Who in Lebanon.  K. G. Saur,  199212.

 

S. Dziki et al. Who's Who in Mass Communication.  K. G. Saur,  19902.

 

R. A. Camp. Who's Who in Mexico. Westview,  19932.

 

Who's Who in New Zealand. Reed,  199014.

 

Who's Who in Religion.  3 vols. Marquis Who's Who,  19924.

 

Who's Who in Science and Engineering. Marquis Who's Who,  1992.

 

M. Cassutt. Who's Who in Space.  G. H. Hall,  1992.

 

Who's Who in Technology. 2 vols.  Gale,  19896.

 

B. Radice. Who's Who in the Ancient World.  Penguin Books,  1973.

 

Who's Who in the Arab World 19901991.  Thoroughly rev. and completed.  Publitec Publications,  199010.

 

Who's Who in the Commonwealth. Melrose Press,  19842.

 

W. Bartke. Who's Who in the People's Republic of China. 2 vols.  K. G. Saur,  19913.

 

J. Stroynowski. Who's Who in the Socialist Countries of Europe. 3 vols.  K. G. Saur,  1989.

 

B. Lewytzkyj. Who's Who in the Soviet Union.  K. G. Saur,  1984.

 

Who's Who in the Theatre. Gale,  198117.

 

Who's Who in the West 19941995.  Marquis Who's Who,  199324.

 

Who's Who in the World 11th Edition 19931994.  Marquis Who's Who,  199211.

 

S. Schur. Who's Who in TV, Cable and Video. Facts on File,  1985.

 

C. Johnson. Who's Who in US Writers, Editors and Poets:A Biographical Directory 19861987.  December Press,  1987.

 

Who's Who in Western Europe. Melrose Press,  19893.

 

D. Mason. Who's Who in World War II.  Little,Brown,  1978.

 

Who's Who of American Women. Marquis Who's Who ,  199318.

 

Who's Who of British Members of Parliament. 4 vols.  Harvester Press,  197681.

 

The Who's Who of Nobel Prize Winners. Oryx,  1991.

 

Who Was Who.  A. & C. Black, 19933.

 

Who Was Who, Vol. 8 19811990: A Companion to Who Was Who: Containing the Biographies of Those Who Died during the Decade  19811990.  A & C Black,  1991.

 

Who Was Who: Acumulated Index,18971990.  A & C Black,  1991.

 

Who Was Who among English and European Authors, 19311949.  3 vols. Gale,  1978.

 

Who Was Who in America.  Historical Volume 16071896. 1963.  Rev. ed. 1967.  Vol. I (18971942),1943; Vol. II (194350), 1950; Vol. III (195160), 1960; Vol. IV (196168), 1968; Vol. V (196973), 1973; Vol. VI (197476), 1976; Vol. VII (197781), 1981; Vol. VIII (198285), 1985; Vol. IX (198689), 1989; Index (16071989),1989; Vol. X (19891993), 1993; Index 1993 Volumes IX and Historical Volume, 1993.  Marquis Who's Who.

 

P. Bell. Who Was Who in Edwardian Scotland.  Peter Bell,  1986.

 

Who Was Who in Literature,19061934.  2 vols. Gale,  1979.

 

S. Sifakis. Who Was Who in the American Civil War. 2 vols.  Facts on File,  1989.

 

U. Schulz-Torge. Who Was Who in the Soviet Union.  K. G. Saur,  1992.

 

Who Was Who in the Theatre,19121976.  4 vols. Gale,  1978.

 

Who Was Who in World Explorations. Facts on File,  1991.

 

E. M. Truitt. Who Was Who On Screen.  R. R. Bowker,  19833.

 

K. M. Wilson & F. J. Warnke. Women Writers of the Seventeenth Century. Univ. of Georgia Press,  1987.

 

The Editors of World Almanac. World Almanac Biographical Dictionary. World Almanac,  1990.

 

A. G. Debus. World Who's Who in Science.  Marquis Who's Who,  1968.

 

The World Who's Who of Women. Melrose Press,  199010.

 

Writer's and Artist's Yearbook 1994. A & C Black,  199387.

 

The Writers Directory 199294.  St. James Press,  199110.

 

L. Phillips & B. Holmes. Yogi, Babe, and Magic: The Complete Book of Sports Nicknames.  Prentice Hall,1994.

 

13.2 架空人名

 

K. K. Howes. Characters in 19th-Century Literature. Gale,  1993.

 

L. L. Harris. Characters in the 20th-Century Literature. Gale,  1990.

 

F. N. Magill. Cyclopedia of Literary Characters.  Harper &Row,  1963.

 

M. Seymour-Smith. The Dent Dictionary of Fictional Characters. Dent,  1991.  (旧版は W. Freeman.  Everyman's Dictionary of Fictional Characters.  Rev. by F. Urquhart.  Dent,  19733)

 

B. Franklin V. Dictionary of American Literary Characters. Facts on File,  1990.

 

J. R. Greenfield. Dictionary of British Literary Characters:18th- and 19th-Century Novels.  Facts on File,  1993.

 

J. Greenfield. The Dictionary of Characters in British Novels. 2 vols.  Facts on File, 1991.

 

O. Odelain & R. Seguineau. Dictionary of Proper Names and Places in the Bible.  Doubleday,  1981.

 

M. C. Rintoul. Dictionary of Real People and Places in Fiction. Routledge,  1993.

 

W. S. Walsh. Heroes and Heroines of Fiction.  2 vols. Lippincott, 191415.  Rpt. Gale,  1966.

 

D. Pringle. Imaginary People: A Who's Who of Modern Fictional Characters.  Grafton Books,  1987.

 

K. McLeish. Longman Guide to Shakespeare's Characters:A Who's Who of Shakespeare.  Longman, 1985.

 

K. E. Tuton-Puckett. My Name in Books: A Guide to Character Names in Children's Literature.  Libraries Unlimited, 1993.

 

W. Amos. The Originals Who's Really Who in Fiction. Jonathan Cape, 1985.

 

A. L. Rowse. Shakespeare's Characters: A Complete Guide. Methuen,  1984.

 

M. Fisher. Who's Who in Children's Books: A Treasury of the Familiar Characters of Childhood.  Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1975.

 

M. Grant & J. Hazel. Who's Who in Classical Mythology. Weidenfeld & Nicholson,  1973.

 

A. S. Murray. Who's Who in Mythology.  Crown, 1988.

 

A. Bold & R. Giddings. Who Was Really Who in Fiction. Longman,  1987.

 

R. Coggins. Who's Who in the Bible. Batsford,  1981.

 

教育社編 『架空人名辞典  欧米編』  教育社1986.

 

C. アジサほか, 中村栄子編訳 『欧米文芸  登場人物事典』  大修館書店, 1986.

 

13.3 人名語源, , など

 

G. R. Stewart. American Given Names.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1979.  (木村康男訳 『アメリカ人名事典ファストネームの由来と歴史』 北星堂, 1983)

 

G. E. Shankle. American Nicknames.  H. W. Wilson,  19552.

 

C. W. Lasker & G. N. Mascie-Talor. Atlas of British Surnames. Wayne State Univ.,  1990.

 

A. Page. Babies Names.  Rev. ed. Elliot Right Way Books,  1986.

 

R. Price et al. The Baby Boomer Book of Names. Price/Stern/Sloan Publishers,  1985.

 

J. Weidenham. Baptismal Names.  Rpt. Gale,  1966.

 

M. Heller. Black Names in America.  G. K. Hall,  1975.

 

J. Cresswell. Bloomsbury Dictionary of First Names. Bloomsbury,  1990.

 

R. Coghlan, I. Grehan & P. W. Joyce. Book of Irish Names: First, Family and Place Names.  Sterling Publishing,  1989.  (3 人の著者の各々の Pocket Guide 版を一冊にまとめたもの  Pocket Guide to Irish Family Names (Coghlan),  Pocket Guide to Irish First Names (Grehan),  Pocket Guide to Irish Places Names (Joyce))

 

P. Vestappen. Book of Surnames: Origins and Oddities of Popular Names.  Sphere Book,  1980.

 

T. R. Davies. A Book of Welsh Names.  Sheperd Press,  1952.

 

A. Room. Brewer's Dictionary of Names.  Cassell, 1992.

 

I. Brown. A Charm of Names.  Bodley Head,  1972.

 

R. Fergusson. Choose Your Baby's Name: A Dictionary of First Names.  Penguin,  1987.

 

Collins Gem Dictionary of First Names. Rev. ed. Collins,  19882.

 

P. Hanks & F. Hodges. A Concise Dictionary of First Names. Oxford Univ. Press,  1992.

 

P. H. Reaney. A Dictionary of British Surnames.  3rd ed. with corrections and additions by R. M. Wilson.  Routledge, 1991.

 

P. Hanks & F. Hodges. A Dictionary of First Names.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

R. Dogra & U. Dogra. A Dictionary of Hindu Names. Aditya Prakashan,  1992.

 

C. Sifakis. The Dictionary of Historic Nicknames. Facts on File,  1984.

 

B. C. Kaganoff. A Dictionary of Jewish Names and Their History. Schocken Books,  1977.

 

E. Latham. A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames of Persons, Places and Things.  George Routledge &Sons,  1904.  Rpt. Gale,  1966.  Omnigraphics,  1990.

 

L. G. Pine. A Dictionary of Nicknames.  Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984.

 

A. Room. A Dictionary of Pseudonyms and Their Origins with Stories of Name Changes.  St. James Press, 1989.

 

M. A. Lower. A Dictionary of Surnames.  1860. Rpt. Wordsworth,  1988.

 

P. Hanks & F. Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford Univ. Press,  1988.

 

J. M. Jarvis. Discovering Christian Names: Over 1200 Names with Their Meanings.  Shire Publications,  19792.

 

J. W. Freeman. Discovering Surnames: Their Origins and Meanings.  Shire Publications,  19732.

 

C. M. Matthews. English Surnames.  Weidenfeld & Nicholson,  1966.

 

L. Dunkling & W. Gosling. Everyman's Dictionary of First Names. Dent,  19913.

 

L. Dunkling. First Names First.  Dent, 1977.  (中村匡克抄訳版 『データで読む英米人名百科名前の栄枯盛衰』 南雲堂1987)

 

Foreign Versions of English Names. Grand River Books,  1980.

 

D. O. Corrain & F. Maguire. Gaelic Personal Names.The Academy Press,  1981.

 

R. Brookes & B. Brookes. A Guide to Jewish Names. S. Reubens and B. Brooks,  1967.

 

L. Dunkling. The Guinness Book of Names. Guinness,  19915.  (L. ダンクリング / 佐々木謙一編訳 『ギネスの名前百科』 研究社出版, 1984 は初版 (1974) の日本語訳)

 

H. S. Sharp. Handbook of Pseudonyms and Personal Nicknames. 2 vols.  Scarecrow,  1972.  2nd Supplement. Metuchen,  1982.

 

C. Johnson & L. Sleigh. The Harrap Book of Boy's and Girl's Names. Harrap, 1962.

 

B. Freestone. Harrap's Book of Nicknames and Their Origins. Harrap, 1990.

 

H. B. Guppy. Homes of Family Names in Great Britain. Geneological,  1890.  Rpt.  1968.

 

C. M. Matthews. How Surnames Began.  Weidenfeld & Nicholson,  1967.

 

H. W. Cottey & M. J. Morgan. Irish Families in Australia and New Zealand,17881983.  H. W. Cottey,  1983.

 

B. de Breffny. Irish Family Names: Arms, Origins and Locations.  Norton,  1982.

 

P. Woulfe. Irish Names for Children.  Rev. ed. Gill & Macmillan,  1974.

 

A. J. Kolatch. The Jonathan David Dictionary of First Names. J. David,  1980.

 

P. M. Fraser & E. Matthews. A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names. 6 vols.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1985 .

 

B. Cottle. Names.  Thames and Hudson, 1983.

 

E. Partridge. Name This Child.  Hamish Hamilton,  1951.

 

J. I. Rodale with E. J. Fluck. The Name-Word Finder Including Metaphor Finder,Sophisticated Synonyms.  Rodale Press,  1953.  Rpt. 明倫出版1985.

 

R. Thewes. Name Your Daughter.  Corgi Books,  1969.

 

R. Thewes. Name Your Son.  Corgi Books,  1969.

 

A. Room. Naming Names: A Book of Pseudonyms and Name Changes with a `Who's Who'.  Routledge & Kegan Paul,  1981.

 

S. Browder. The New Age Baby Name Book.  Warner Books,  1975.

 

M. Brown. The New Book of First Names.  Corgi Books,  1985.

 

E. C. Smith. New Dictionary of American Family Names. Enlarged ed.  Harper & Row, 1973.  Rpt. Gramercy,  1988.

 

A. J. Kolatch. The New Name Dictionary: Modern English and Hebrew Names.  Jonathan David,  1989.

 

L. Dunkling. Our Secret Names.  Sidgwick &Jackson,  1981.

 

E. G. Withycombe. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford Univ. Press,  19773.

 

B. Cottle. The Penguin Book of Surnames.  Penguin, 19782.

 

E. D. Lawson. Personal Names and Naming: An Annotated Bibliography.  Greenwood,  1987.

 

J. Mossman. Pseudonyms and Nicknames Dictionary. Main Volumes, 2 vols.,  19873.  Supplement, 1988. Gale.

 

L. A. Dunkling. Scottish Christian Names: An AZ of First Names.  Johnston and Bacon,  1978.

 

L. G. Pine. The Story of Surnames.  David &Charles,  1965.  Rpt.  1969.

 

E. MacLysaght. The Surnames of Ireland.  Irish Academic Press,  19856.

 

G. F. Black. The Surnames of Scotland.  New York Public Library,  1946.  Rpt.  1979.

 

A. Benjamin. A Treasury of Baby Names.  New enlarged ed.  Signet Book,  19902.

 

L. Urdang. Twentieth Century American Nicknames. H. W. Wilson,  1979.

 

W. Addison. Understanding English Surnames. Batsford,  1978.

 

R. Stephens. Welsh Names for Children.  Y. Lolfa,  1970.

 

H. Gruffudd. Welsh Personal Names.  Y. Lolfa,  1980.

 

T. J. Morgan & P. Morgan. Welsh Surnames.  Univ. of Wales Press,  1986.

 

P. Dickson. What Do You Call a Person from?  Facts on File,  1990.

 

S. Moody. What Is Your Name?  Bentley, 1863.  Rpt. Gale,  1976.

 

L. Dunkling. What's in a Name?  Ventura, 1979.

 

R. Trahair. What's in a NameAn Australian Dictionary of Eponyms.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1990.

 

M. Nunberg & M. N. Rosenblun. What to Name Your Baby.  Collier, 1962.

 

N. Rees & V. Nobel. A Who's Who of Nicknames. Allen & Unwin,  1985.

 

E. D. Young. You Are Your First Name.  Pocket Books,  1983.

 

L. Dunkling. You Name It́  Faber and Faber,  1987.

 

木村正史 『英米人の姓名』  弓書房,  1980.

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14. 主要参考文献:地名

 

14.1 一般地名

 

R. Appleton & B. Appleton. The Cambridge Dictionary of Australian Places.  Cambridge Univ. Press,  1992.

 

D. Munro. Chambers World Gazeteer.  Chambers, 1988.

 

L. E. Seltzer. The Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer of the World with 1961 Supplement.  Columbia Univ. Press,  1962.

 

C. Canby. The Encyclopedia of Historic Places. 2 vols.  Facts on File.

 

M. Upshall. The Hutchinson Guide to the World.  Helicon, 19932.

 

K. B. Harder. Illustrated Dictionary of Place Names:United States and Canada.  Van Nostrand Reinhold,  1976.

 

F. R. Abate. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America:A Guide to 1,500,000 Place-Names in the United States and Territories.  11 vols. Omnigraphics,  1991.

 

The Ordnance Survey Gazetteer of Great Britain. Macmillan,  19923.

 

J. B. Johnston. Place Names of Scotland.  J. R. Publishers,  19703.

 

A. J. Stevenson. Webster's New Geographical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster,  1988.

 

渡辺光ほか編 『世界地名大辞典』  8 vols.  朝倉書店197374.

 

14.2 架空地名

 

A. Manguel & G. Guadalupi. The Dictionary of Imaginary Places. Expanded ed.  Lester & Orpen Dennys Publishers,  1987.  (高橋康也監訳  『世界文学にみる架空地名大事典』 講談社, 1984 は初版 (1980) の訳)

 

R. Cuffari. Dictionary of Mythical Places.  H. Z. Walck,  1975.

 

R. E. Bell. Place-Names in Classical Mythology:Greece.  Oryx Press,  1989.

 

14.3 地名語源など

 

G. R. Stewart. American Place-Names.  Oxford Univ. Press,  1970.

 

A. Room. A Concise Dictionary of Modern Place-Names in Great Britain and Ireland.  Oxford Univ. Press, 1983.

 

E. Ekwall. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford Univ. Press,  19604.

 

A. D. Mills. A Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford Univ. Press,  1991.

 

A. Room. Dictionary of Irish Place-Names.  Appletree,1986.

 

L. Urdang.